Banner Portal
Evaluation of facial pattern in Black Brazilian subjects


Cephalometrics. Orthodontics. African continental ancestry group. Facial pattern

How to Cite

Magnani MBB de A, Nouer DF, Kuramae M, Lucato AS, Boeck EM, Vedovello SAS. Evaluation of facial pattern in Black Brazilian subjects. Braz. J. Oral Sci. [Internet]. 2016 Jan. 22 [cited 2023 Sep. 30];6(23):1428-31. Available from:


Black subjects present craniofacial characteristics that differ from other ethnic groups. Thus, there is a need for studies that allow proper diagnostics for this specific group. This study aimed to evaluate the facial pattern in young Black Brazilian subjects by FMA and “Y”-axis cephalometric measurements. The sample comprised the lateral cephalograms of 37 Black untreated young Brazilian subjects of both genders (16 males and 21 females), aged from 10 to 14 years, all from Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil and surroundings; their occlusion was excellent by clinical standards, and they have never undergone orthodontic treatment. Following statistical analysis of data, it was observed no significant difference in facial pattern ratios between genders (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.1596), but the prevailing facial pattern was mesofacial, followed by dolicofacial. Brachifacial pattern was absent in this sample. The mesofacial pattern was prevalent among females, and both mesofacial and dolicofacial patterns were equally distributed among males.


Tweed CH. The Frankfort-mandibular plane angle in orthodontic diagnosis, classification, treatment planning, and prognosis. Am J Orthod Oral Surg. 1946; 32: 175-232.

Tweed CH. Was the development of the diagnostic facial triangle as an accurate analysis based on fact or fancy? Am J Orthod. 1962; 48: 823-40.

Downs WB. Variations in facial relationships: their significance in treatment and prognosis. Angle Orthod. 1949; 19: 145-55.

Connor AM, Moshiri F. Orthognathic surgery norms for American black patients. Am J Orthod. 1985; 87: 119-34.

Cotton WN, Takano WS, Wong WMW. The Downs analysis applied the three other ethinic groups. Angle Orthod. 1951; 21: 213-20.

Flynn TR, Ambrogio RI, Zeichner SJ. Cephalometric norms for orthognathic surgery in black American adults. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1989; 47: 30-9.

Naidoo LC, Miles LP. An evaluation of the mean cephalometric values for orthognathic surgery for black South African adults. Part 1: Hard tissue. J Dent Assoc S Afr. 1997; 52: 495-502.

Huang WJ, Taylor RW, Dasanayake AP. Determining cephalometric norms for Caucasians and African Americans in Birmingham. Angle Orthod. 1998; 68: 503-11.

Bailey KL, Taylor RW.Mesh diagram cephalometric norms for Americans of African descent. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 1998; 114: 218-23.

Anderson AA, Anderson AC, Hornbuckle AC. Biological derivation of a range of cephalometric norms for children of African American descent (after Steiner). Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2000; 118: 90-100.

Dandajena TC, Nanda RS. Bialveolar protrusion in a Zimbabwean sample. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2003; 123: 133-7.

Utomi IL. A cephalometric study of antero-posterior skeletal jaw relationship in Nigerian Hausa-Fulani children. West Afr J Med13. Ajayi EO. Cephalometric norms of Nigerian children. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2005; 128: 653-6.

Bertoz FA, Martins DR. Determinação da linha “I” em melanodermas brasileiros, masculinos de 12 a 17 anos, com oclusão normal. Ortodontia. 1981; 14: 186-98.

Kuramae M, Magnani MBBA, Nouer, DF, Ambrosano, GMB, Inoue, RC. Analysis of Tweed’s Facial Triangle in Black Brazilian youngsters with normal occlusion. Braz J Oral Sci. 2004; 8: 401-3.

Freitas LM, Pinzan A, Janson G, Freitas KM, Freitas MR, Henriques JF. Facial height comparison in young white and black Brazilian subjects with normal occlusion. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2007; 131: 706.e1-6.

Magnani MBBA, Nouer DF, Nouer PR, Pereira Neto JS, Garbui IU, Böeck EM. Assessment of the nasolabial angle in young Brazilian black subjects with normal occlusion. Braz Oral Res. 2004; 18: 233-7.

Midtgard J, Björk G, Linder-Aronson S. Reproducibility of cephalometric landmarks and errors of measurements of cephalometric cranial distances. Angle Orthod. 1974; 44: 56-67.

Enlow, D. Crescimento facial. São Paulo: Artes Médicas; 1993.. 2004; 23: 119-222.

The Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences uses the Creative Commons license (CC), thus preserving the integrity of the articles in an open access environment.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...