Comparative of flexural strength, hardness, and fluoride release of two bioactive restorative materials with RMGI and composite resin
Keywords:Materials testing, Physical phenomena, Dental materials, Saliva, artificial
Aim: This study was fulfilled to evaluate the flexural strength, micro-hardness, and release of two fluoride ions of bioactive restorative materials (Cention N and Activa Bioactive), a resin modified glass ionomer (Fuji II LC), and a resin composite (Filtek z250). Methods: Forty samples from four restorative materials (Activa Bioactive, Fuji II LC, Cention N, and Filtek Z250) were provided according to the current standards of ISO 4049/2000 guide lines. Subsequently, the samples were stored for 24 hours and 6 months in artificial saliva, and successively, flexural strength and micro-hardness of the samples were measured. For each studied groups the pH was decreased from 6.8 to 4 in storage solution. The rate of changes in fluoride ion release was measured after three different storage periods of 24 hours, 48 hours, and 6 months in distilled water, according to the previous studies’ method. Two-way ANOVA, One-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD Pair wise comparisons, and independent t-tests were used to analyze data (α= 0.05). Results: The highest flexural strength and surface micro-hardness after 24 hours and also after 6 month were observed for Cention N(p<0.001).Flexural strength of all samples stored for 6 months was significantly lower than the samples stored for 24 hours(p<0.001). The accumulative amount of the released fluoride ion in RMGI, after six-month storage period in distilled water was considerably higher (p<0.001) than 24 hours and 48 hours storage. The amount of fluoride ion release with increasing acidity of the environment (from pH 6.8 to 4) in Fuji II LC glass ionomer was higher than the bioactive materials (p<0.05). Conclusion: The flexural strength of RMGI was increased after storage against the Activa Bioactive,Cention N and Z250 composite. Storage of restorative materials in artificial saliva leads to a significant reduction in micro hardness. The behavior and amount of released fluoride ions in these restorative materials, which are stored in an acidic environment, were dependent on the type of restorative material.
Erdemir U, Yildiz E, Eren MM, Ozel S. Surface hardness evaluation of different composite resin materials: influence of sports and energy drinks immersion after a short-term period. J Appl Oral Sci. 2013 Mar-Apr;21(2):124-31. doi: 10.1590/1678-7757201302185. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-7757201302185
Nowaiser A. Comparison between polyacid-modified composite resin and conventional composite resin used for primary molars restoration. J Dent Oral Care Med. 2017 Sep;3(2):204. doi: 10.15744/2454-3276.3.204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15744/2454-3276.3.204
Kasraei S,Yarmohammadi E, Farhadian M, Malek M. Effect of proteolytic agent on microleakage of etch and rinse adhesive systems. Braz J Oral Sci. 2017;16:e17048. doi: 10.20396/bjos.v16i0.8651051. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20396/bjos.v16i0.8651051
Kruly PC, Giannini M, Pascotto RC, Tokubo LM, Suga USG, Marques ACR, et al. Meta-analysis of the clinical behavior of posterior direct resin restorations: Low polymerization shrinkage resin in comparison to methacrylate composite resin. PLoS One. 2018 Feb;13(2):e0191942. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0191942. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191942
Eskandarizadeh A, Parizi MT, Goroohi H, Badrian H, Asadi A, Khalighinejad N. Histological assessment of pulpal responses to resin modified glass ionomer cements in human teeth. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2015 Mar-Apr;12(2):144-9.
Menezes-Silva R, Oliveira BMB, Magalhães APR, Bueno LS, Borges AFS, Baesso ML, et al. Correlation between mechanical properties and stabilization time of chemical bonds in glass-ionomer cements. Braz Oral Res. 2020 Jun;34:e053. doi: 10.1590/1807-3107bor-2020.vol34.0053. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107bor-2020.vol34.0053
de Lima Navarro MF, Pascotto RC, Borges AFS, Soares CJ, Raggio DP, Rios D. Consensus on glass-ionomer cement thresholds for restorative indications. J Dent. 2021 Apr;107:103609. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2021.103609. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2021.103609
Jefferies S. Bioactive and biomimetic restorative materials: a comprehensive review. Part II. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2014 Jan-Feb;26(1):27-39. doi: 10.1111/jerd.12066. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jerd.12066
Sahoo SK, Meshram GR, Parihar AS, Pitalia D, Vasudevan H, Surana A. Evaluation of Effect of Dietary Solvents on Bond Strength of Compomer, Ormocer, Nanocomposite and Activa Bioactive Restorative Materials. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2019 Aug;9(5):453-7. doi: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_47_19..
Gupta V. Smart materials in dentistry: a review. Int J Adv Res Devel. 2018 Jul;3(6):89-96.
Pameijer CH, Garcia-Godoy F, Morrow BR, Jefferies SR. Flexural strength and flexural fatigue properties of resin-modified glass ionomers. J Clin Dent. 2015;26(1):23-7.
Bansal R, John B. Wear of a calcium, phosphate and fluoride releasing restorative material. J Dent Res. 2015;94(Spec Issue A):3797.
Garcia-Godoy F, Morrow BR. Wear resistance of new ACTIVA compared to other restorative materials. J Dent Res. 2015;94(Spec Issue A):3522.
Kandil MM, Sherief DI. Marginal adaptation,compressive strength,water sorption, solubility and ion release of a claimed Bioactive restorative material. Egyp Dent J. 2021 Jan;67:547-61. doi: 10.21608/EDJ.2020.42560.1256. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21608/edj.2020.42560.1256
Cannon M, Powell A, Kuttab J, Jurado R. Pilot study to measure fluoride ion penetration of hydrophilic sealant. In: IADR/AADR Annual Meeting; 2010.
Zmener O, Pameijer CH, Hernández S. Resistance against bacterial leakage of four luting agents used for cementation of complete cast crowns. Am J Dent. 2014 Feb;27(1):51-5.
Cention N. Ivoclar – Vivadent Publication. Liechtenstein, Switzerland: Ivoclar; 2017. Available from: https://www.ivoclar.com/en_mena/products/n/cention-n.
Kini A, Shetty S, Bhat R, Shetty P. Microleakage Evaluation of an Alkasite Restorative Material: An In Vitro Dye Penetration Study. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2019 Nov;20(11):1315-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2720
Alrahlah A. Diametral Tensile Strength, Flexural Strength, and Surface Microhardness of Bioactive Bulk Fill Restorative. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2018 Jan;19(1):13-9. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2205. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2205
May E, Donly KJ. Fluoride release and re-release from a bioactive restorative material. Am J Dent. 2017 Dec;30(6):305-8.
Ilie N, Stawarczyk B. Evaluation of modern bioactive restoratives for bulk-fill placement. J Dent. 2016 Jun;49:46-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2016.04.001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2016.04.001
Pashley DH, Tay FR, Yiu C, Hashimoto M, Breschi L, Carvalho RM, et al. Collagen degradation by host-derived enzymes during aging. J Dent Res. 2004 Mar;83(3):216-21. doi: 10.1177/154405910408300306. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/154405910408300306
Stephan RM. Changes in hydrogen-ion concentration on tooth surfaces and in carious lesions. J Am Dent Assoc. 1940;27:718-23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.1940.0178
Nigam AG, Jaiswal J, Murthy R, Pandey R. Estimation of fluoride release from various dental materials in different media-an in vitro study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2009 Jan;2(1):1-8. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1033. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1033
Garoushi S, Vallittu PK, Lassila L. Characterization of fluoride releasing restorative dental materials. Dent Mater J. 2018 Mar;37(2):293-300. doi: 10.4012/dmj.2017-161. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4012/dmj.2017-161
Sideridou ID, Karabela MM, Bikiaris DN. Aging studies of light cured dimethacrylate-based dental resins and a resin composite in water or ethanol/water. Dent Mater. 2007 Sep;23(9):1142-9. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2006.06.049. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2006.06.049
Heintze SD, Ilie N, Hickel R, Reis A, Loguercio A, Rousson V. Laboratory mechanical parameters of composite resins and their relation to fractures and wear in clinical trials-A systematic review. Dent Mater. 2017 Mar;33(3):e101-14. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2016.11.013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2016.11.013
Boaro LC, Gonçalves F, Guimarães TC, Ferracane JL, Pfeifer CS, Braga RR. Sorption, solubility, shrinkage and mechanical properties of "low-shrinkage" commercial resin composites. Dent Mater. 2013 Apr;29(4):398-404. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2013.01.006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2013.01.006
Porto IC, de Aguiar FH, Brandt WC, Liporoni PC. Mechanical and physical properties of silorane and methacrylate-based composites. J Dent. 2013 Aug;41(8):732-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2013.05.012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2013.05.012
Giannini M, Di Francescantonio M, Pacheco RR, Cidreira Boaro LC, Braga RR. Characterization of water sorption, solubility, and roughness of silorane- and methacrylate-based composite resins. Oper Dent. 2014 May-Jun;39(3):264-72. doi: 10.2341/12-526-L. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2341/12-526-L
Taha NA, Ghanim A, Tavangar MS. Comparison of mechanical properties of resin composites with resin modified glass ionomers. J Dent Biomater. 2015;2(2):47-53.
Korkut E, Gezgin O, Tulumbacı F, Özer H, Şener Y. Comparative evaluation of mechanical properties of a bioactive resin modified glass ionomer cement. J Ege Univ Sch Dent. 2017 Jan;38(3):170-5. doi: 10.5505/eudfd.2017.38243. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5505/eudfd.2017.38243
Lim BS, Ferracane JL, Condon JR, Adey JD. Effect of filler fraction and filler surface treatment on wear of microfilled composites. Dent Mater. 2002 Jan;18(1):1-11. doi: 10.1016/s0109-5641(00)00103-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0109-5641(00)00103-2
Valanezhad A, Odatsu T, Udoh K, Shiraishi T, Sawase T, Watanabe I. Modification of resin modified glass ionomer cement by addition of bioactive glass nanoparticles. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2016 Jan;27(1):3. doi: 10.1007/s10856-015-5614-0. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-015-5614-0
Croll TP, Berg JH, Donly KJ. Dental repair material: a resin-modified glass-ionomer bioactive ionic resin-based composite. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2015 Jan;36(1):60-5.
Cattani-Lorente MA, Dupuis V, Payan J, Moya F, Meyer JM. Effect of water on the physical properties of resin-modified glass ionomer cements. Dent Mater. 1999 Jan;15(1):71-8. doi: 10.1016/s0109-5641(99)00016-0. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0109-5641(99)00016-0
Sidhu SK. Clinical evaluations of resin-modified glass-ionomer restorations. Dent Mater. 2010 Jan;26(1):7-12. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2009.08.015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2009.08.015
Ling L, Xu X, Choi GY, Billodeaux D, Guo G, Diwan RM. Novel F-releasing composite with improved mechanical properties. J Dent Res. 2009 Jan;88(1):83-8. doi: 10.1177/0022034508328254. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022034508328254
Rusin RP, Fitch JA, Aeschliman DB, Cummings KM. Ion release from a new protective coating. In: IADR/AADR Annual Meeting. San Diego, California; 2011.
Girn VS, Chao W, Harsono M, Perry R, Kugel G. Comparison of mechanical properties of dental restorative material. J Dent Res. 2014;93(Spec Issue):1163.
Cannavo M, Harsono M, Finkelman M, Kugel G. Microleakage of dental bulk fill, conventional and self-adhesive composites. J Dent Res. 2014;93(Spec Issue):847.
Prabhakar AR, Murthy SA, Sugandhan S. Comparative evaluation of the length of resin tags, viscosity and microleakage of pit and fissure sealants - an in vitro scanning electron microscope study. Contemp Clin Dent. 2011 Oct;2(4):324-30. doi: 10.4103/0976-237X.91797. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0976-237X.91797
Singla R, Bogra P, Singal B. Comparative evaluation of traditional and self-priming hydrophilic resin. J Conserv Dent. 2012 Jul;15(3):233-6. doi: 10.4103/0972-0707.97944. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.97944
Nagi SM, Moharam LM, El Hoshy AZ. Fluoride release and recharge of enhanced resin modified glass ionomer at different time intervals. Future Dent J. 2018 Dec;4(2):221-4. doi: 10.1016/j.fdj.2018.06.005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fdj.2018.06.005
Shiozawa M, Takahashi H, Iwasaki N. Fluoride release and mechanical properties after 1-year water storage of recent restorative glass ionomer cements. Clin Oral Investig. 2014 May;18(4):1053-60. doi: 10.1007/s00784-013-1074-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-013-1074-4
Nicholson JW. Fluoride-releasing dental restorative materials: an update. Balkan J Dent Med. 2014 Jul;18(2):60-9. doi: 10.1515/bjdm-2015-0010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bjdm-2015-0010
Tiwari M, Tyagi S, Nigam M, Rawal M, Meena S, Choudhary A. Dental smart materials. J Orofac Res. 2015;5(4):125-9. doi: 10.5005/JP-JOURNALS-10026-1195. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10026-1195
Moreau JL, Xu HH. Fluoride releasing restorative materials: Effects of pH on mechanical properties and ion release. Dent Mater. 2010 Nov;26(11):e227-35. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2010.07.004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2010.07.004
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Shahin Kasraei, Sahebeh Haghi, Azin Farzad, Mona Malek, Sogol Nejadkarimi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences uses the Creative Commons license (CC), thus preserving the integrity of the articles in an open access environment.