Os contornos da cidadania crítica: explorando a legitimidade democrática

  • Mitchel A. Seligson University of Pittsburgh
  • John A. Booth University of North Texas
  • Miguel Gómez B. Universidad de Costa Rica
Palavras-chave: Legitimidade política. Cultura política. Democracia. Confiança

Resumo

Recentes quedas acentuadas da confiança no governo dos públicos de massa de democracias institucionalizadas reacenderam o interesse pela teoria e pesquisa sobre a legitimidade. Há muito tempo os teóricos concebem a legitimidade política como multidimensional e sustentam que ela vai do apoio abstrato a uma comunidade política subjacente aos princípios do regime à avaliação mais concreta do desempenho do regime, das instituições e dos atores. Porém, surpreendentemente, pouca pesquisa empírica avaliou a validade desse constructo teórico. Utilizando um survey nacional da Costa Rica, uma democracia estável e bem sucedida, investigamos se a legitimidade política existe empiricamente e examinamos sua estrutura. Usando análise fatorial confirmatória, encontramos evidências que sustentam a estrutura multidimensional do apoio político. Identificamos também certas limitações tanto da pesquisa teórica como da empírica, relacionadas com a operacionalização equivocada e a especificação de vínculos empíricos que não conseguimos detectar. Também encontramos e remediamos um surpreendente erro de omissão, já que as pesquisas anteriores não haviam percebido o governo local como um alvo de crenças legitimidoras.

 

Abstract

Recent steep declines in trust in government among the mass publics of institutionalized democracies have rekindled interest in legitimacy theory and research. Theorists have long conceived of political legitimacy as multidimensional, and argue that it ranges from abstract support for a political community underlying regime principles to the more concrete evaluation of regime performance, institutions, and actors. However, surprisingly little empirical research has evaluated the theory’s construct validity. Employing a national sample survey from Costa Rican, a stable and successful democracy, we explore whether political legitimacy empirically exists and examine its structure. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we find evidence supporting the multidimensional structure of political support. We also identify certain limitations with both the theoretical and limited empirical research, related to misleading operationalization and the specification of empirical links that we fail to detect. We also find and remedy a surprising error of omission – that prior research overlooked local government as a target of legitimacy beliefs.

Key words: political legitimacy, civic culture, democracy, trust

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Biografia do Autor

Mitchel A. Seligson, University of Pittsburgh
Mitchell A. Seligson is the Centennial Professor of Political Science and Professor of Sociology at Vanderbilt University and serves as a member of the General Assembly of the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights. He is the founder and Senior Advisor of the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP), which conducts the AmericasBarometer surveys that currently cover 27 countries in the Americas. LAPOP has conducted over 100 surveys of public opinion, mainly focused on democracy, in many countries in Latin America, but has also included projects in Africa and the Balkans.
John A. Booth, University of North Texas
Doctor of Philosophy, Government, University of Texas at Austin, 1975. 

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Publicado
2015-10-22
Como Citar
Seligson, M. A., Booth, J. A., & Gómez B., M. (2015). Os contornos da cidadania crítica: explorando a legitimidade democrática. Opinião Pública, 12(1), 1-37. Recuperado de https://periodicos.sbu.unicamp.br/ojs/index.php/op/article/view/8641216
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