A formação do capital social na América Central: violência política, repressão, dor e perda

Autores

  • John A. Booth University of North Texas
  • Patricia Bayer Richard Ohio University

Palavras-chave:

Democratização. Violência política. Ativismo societal. América Central

Resumo

A repressão do Estado procura dissuadir os cidadãos de se oporem ao regime e seus programas e fazer com que a sociedade civil e o capital social sirvam aos seus propósitos. Essa repressão pode ir de formas leves de coerção e intimidação ao extremo de infligir dor física aos cidadãos. Os insurgentes também podem reprimir e infligir dor aos cidadãos e assim moldar seus comportamentos e atitudes. Nas décadas de 1980 e 1990, os Estados da América Central e seus oponentes empregaram níveis muito variados de repressão e violência política. No interior dessas nações, os indivíduos perceberam de modo diferenciado a violência e sofreram graus variados de dor e perda. Utilizando dados de surveys dos anos 90 para seis países centro-americanos a fm de examinar os efeitos sobre o capital social da repressão, da violência política percebida e da dor e perda resultantes, concluímos que a repressão sistêmica e a percepção da violência política afetam significativamente a sociedade civil (envolvimento em grupo) e variedades do capital social (participação política, normas democráticas e antidemocráticas, alienação das eleições e disposição para utilizar táticas de confrontação política). Os efeitos da dor e da perda são menos claros. Embora a repressão busque refrear a participação e moldar normas de submissão, seus efeitos na América Central são complexos e, às vezes, inconsistentes com esses objetivos porque ela promove um nível de organização comunal cada vez maior e certas formas confrontadoras de capital social.

 

Abstract

State repression seeks to dissuade citizens from opposing the regime and its programs, and to bend civil society and social capital to regime purposes. Such repression may range from lesser forms of coercion and intimidation to the extreme infliction of physical pain upon citizens. Insurgents, too, may repress and inflict pain upon citizens and thus shape their behavior and attitudes. Central American states and their opponents in the 1980s and early 1990s employed widely varying levels of repression and political violence. Individuals within these nations differentially perceived violence and experienced varying levels of pain and loss stemming from it. Using 1990s survey data from six Central American nations to examine the effects of repression, perceived political violence, and resultant pain and loss upon social capital, we find that repression at the systemic level and the perception of political violence significantly affect civil society (group involvement) and varieties of social capital (political participation, democratic and antidemocratic norms, alienation from elections, and willingness to employ confrontational political tactics). The effects of pain and loss are less clear. While repression seeks to constrain participation and mold compliant norms, its effects in Central America are complex and sometimes inconsistent with such goals because it promotes increased communal level organization and certain confrontational forms of social capital.

Palavras-chave: democratização, violência política, ativismo societal, América Central

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

John A. Booth, University of North Texas

John A. Booth is Regents Professor of political science at the University of North Texas. His published research focuses on attitudes toward democracy and democratic change in Latin America and on political violence and revolution in Central America. He serves as a consultant on the Latin American Public Opinion Project AmericasBarometer 2010 public opinion survey round, and has consulted and lectured on democratization, revolution, and Central American politics, and a political risk consultant for the Department of State, other government agencies, interest groups, foundations, and corporations and several universities.

Patricia Bayer Richard, Ohio University

Patricia Bayer Richard is Trustee Professor Emerita of Political Science at Ohio University. Her research spans democracy, public opinion, political culture, elections, and reproductive rights. Her work has appeared in journals and books such as the American Journal of Political Science, theJournal of Politics, the Social Science Quarterly, Electoral Studies, American Behavioral Scientist,Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding in Post-War Societies, Repression, Resistance, and Democratic Transition in Central America, Elections and Democracy in Central America Revisited, and Abortion Politics in American States.

 

 

Referências

ARMONY, Ariel. (1999) Unmasking Social Capital: Civic Participation, Interpersonal Trust, and the Role of the State in the United States and Argentina. Trabalho apresentado na Reunião Anual da Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, abril 15-17.

BARSH, Russell Lawrence. (1993) Measuring Human Rights: Problems of Methodology and Purpose. Human Rights Quarterly 15:87-121.

BERKOWITZ, Peter. (1999) Virtue and the Making of Modern Liberalism. Princeton, Princeton University Press.

BOOTH, John A. (1991) Socioeconomic and Political Roots of National Revolts in Central America Latin American Research Review 26 (No. 1): 33-73.

BOOTH, John A. (2000) Global Forces and Regime Change: Guatemala Within the Central American Context. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs (a sair).

BOOTH, John A. e RICHARD, Patricia Bayer. (1996) Repression, Participation, and Democratic Norms in Urban Central America. American Journal of Political Science, 40: 1205-1232.

BOOTH, John A. (1998a) Civil Society, Political Capital, and Democratization in Central America. Journal of Politics, 60:780-800, (agosto).

BOOTH, John A. (1998b) Civil Society and Political Context in Central America. American Behavioral Scientist 42: 33-46, (setembro).

BOOTH, John A. (1998c) Civil Society in Central America: The Dark Side? Trabalho apresentado na reunião da Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, abril 23.

BOOTH, John A. e SELIGSON, Mitchell A. (1984) The Political Culture of Authoritarianism in Mexico: A Reexamination. Latin American Research Review 19, 1:106-124.

BOOTH, John A. e WALKER, Thomas W. (1999) Understanding Central America. Boulder, Westview Press.

COLLIER, David, ed. (1979) The New Authoritarianism in Latin America. Princeton, Princeton University Press. Corradi, Juan E., FAGEN Patricia Weiss e GARRETÓN Manuel Antonio. (1992) Fear at the Edge:

State Terror and Resistance in Latin America. Berkeley, University of California Press.

DAVENPORT, Christian. (1995) Multi-Dimensional Threat Perception and State Repression: An Inquiry into Why States Apply Negative Sanctions. American Journal of Political Science, 39: (No. 3):683-713.

DAVENPORT, Christian, ed. (1999) Paths to State Repression: Human Rights and Contentious Politics in Comparative Perspective. Rowman and Littlefield.

DIAMOND, Larry. Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins. DUFF, Ernest A. e MCCAMANT, John F. (1976) Violence and Repression in Latin America: A Quantitative and Historical Analysis. Nova York, The Free Press.

EDWARDS, Bob, e FOLEY, Michael W. (2001) Beyond Tocqueville: Civil Society and the Social Capital Debate. In Bob Edwards, Michael W. Foley, e Mario Diani, eds. Beyond Tocqueville: Civil Society and the Social Capital Debate in Comparative Perspective. University Press of New

England (a sair).

FEIN, Helen. (1995) More Murder in the Middle: Life-Integrity Violations and Democracy in the World, 1987. Human Rights Quarterly 17,1:170-191.

FOLEY, Michael W. e EDWARDS, Bob. (1996) The Paradox of Civil Society. Journal of Democracy

: 38-52.

FOLEY, Michael W. (1998) Beyond Tocqueville: Civil Society and Social Capital in Comparative Perspective. American Behavioral Scientist 42 (No. 1): 5-20.

FOLEY, Michael W. (2000) Is It Time to Disinvest in Social Capital? Journal of Public Policy .

GARTNER, Scott S. e REGAN, Patrick M. (1996) Threat and Repression: The Non-Linear Relationship between Government and Opposition Violence. Journal of Peace Research 33(3):273-288.

GASTIL, Raymond D. (1989) Freedom in the Comparative Survey: Definitions and Criteria. In Raymond Gastil, ed., Freedom in the World: Political Rights and Civil Liberties 1988-1989. Nova York, Freedom House.

GIBSON, James. 1988. “Political Intolerance and Repression During the McCarthy Red Scare.” American Political Science Review 82(2):511-529.

GURR, Ted Robert. (1970) Why Men Rebel. Princeton, Princeton University Press.

GURR, Ted Robert e HARFF, Barbara. (1994) Ethnic Conflict in World Politics. Boulder, Westview Press.

JENNINGS, Kent. (1999) Political Responses to Pain and Loss. American Political Science Review 93(1):1-14.

KING, John C. (1998) Repression, Domestic Threat, and Interactions in Argentina and Chile. Journal of Political and Military Sociology 27 (Inverno): 1-37.

KING, John C. (1999) Ameliorating Effects of Democracy on Political Repression as Seen in 51 Countries Across 35 Years. In Christian Davenport, (ed.), Paths to State Repression: Human Rights and Contentious Politics in Comparative Perspective. Rowman and Littlefield .

LICHBACH, Mark Irving. (1995) The Rebel's Dilemma. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.

LOVEMAN, Brian, DAVIES, Jr, Thomas M. e BEEZLEY, William H., eds. (1987). The Politics of Antipolitics: The Military in Latin America. Wilmington, Del., Scholarly Resources.

MASON, T. David e KRANE, Dale A. (1989) The Political Economy of Death Squads: Toward a Theory of the Impact of State-Sanctioned Terror. International Studies Quarterly 33:175-98, (junho).

MULLER, Edward N. et al. (1987) Education, Participation, and Support for Democratic Norms.

Comparative Politics, 20:19-33, (Outubro).

PETRAS, James F.et al. (1986) Latin America: Bankers, Generals, and the Struggle for Social Justice. Totowa, N.J., Rowman and Littlefield.

PION-BERLIN, David. (1989) The Ideology of State Terror: Economic Doctrine and Political Repression in Argentina and Peru. Boulder, Lynne Rienner Publishers.

POE, Steven C. (1990) Human Rights and Foreign Aid: A Review of Quantitative Research and Prescriptions for Future Research. Human Rights Quarterly, 12:499-512.

POE, Steven C. (1991) Human Rights and the Allocation of U.S. Military Assistance. Journal of Peace Research, 28:205-216.

POE, Steven C. e TATE, C. Neal. (1994) Repression of Personal Integrity in the 1980s: A Global Analysis. American Political Science Review, 88(4):853-872.

POWER, Timothy J. e CLARK, Mary A. (1999) Does Trust Matter? Interpersonal Trust and Democratic Values in Three Latin American Nations. Trabalho apresentado na Conference on Democracy and Development, Middelbury College, maio 8-9, 1999.

PUTNAM, Robert D. (1995) Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital. Journal of Democracy, 6:65-78.

PUTNAM, Robert D. 2000) Bowling Alone: Civil Engagement in America. Nova York, Simon and Schuster .

REGAN, Patrick M. (1999) Democracy, Threats, and Political Repression: Are Democracies Less Violent Internally? Trabalho apresentado na reunião da American Political Science Association, Atlanta, Georgia, (setembro).

RICHARD, Patricia Bayer e BOOTH, John A. (2000) Civil Society and Democratic Transition in Central America. In Thomas A. Walker e Ariel C. Armony. Repression, Resistance, and Democratic Transition in Central America. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources .

ROSENBLUM, Nancy L. (1998) Membership and Morals: The Personal Uses of Pluralism. Princeton, Princeton University Press.

SCHUDSON, Michael. (1998) The Good Citizen: A History of American Civic Life. Nova York, The Free Press.

SELIGSON, Mitchell A. e BOOTH, John A. (1993) Political Culture and Regime Type: Evidence from Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Journal of Politics, 55:777-792, (Agosto).

SELIGSON, Mitchell A. e GÓMEZ B., Miguel. (1989) Ordinary Elections in

Extraordinary Times. In John A. Booth and Mitchell A. Seligson, eds. Elections and Democracy in Central America. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press.

STOHL, Michael e LOPEZ, George A. eds. (1984) The State as Terrorist. Westport, Conn. Greenwood Press.

STOHL, Michael e LOPEZ, eds. (1986) Government Violence and Repression: An Agenda for Research. Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press.

STOHL, Michael e LOPEZ, eds. (1988) Terrible Beyond Endurance: The Foreign Policy of State Terrorism. Nova York, Greenwood Press. TILLY, Charles. (1978) From Mobilization to Revolution. Reading, Mass., Addison Wesley.

Downloads

Publicado

2015-10-16

Como Citar

Booth, J. A., & Richard, P. B. (2015). A formação do capital social na América Central: violência política, repressão, dor e perda. Opinião Pública, 7(1), 75–99. Recuperado de https://periodicos.sbu.unicamp.br/ojs/index.php/op/article/view/8641077

Edição

Seção

Artigos

Artigos mais lidos pelo mesmo(s) autor(es)