Legitimidade política em novas democracias

Autores

  • Richard Gunther Ohio State University
  • José Ramón Monteiro Instituto Juan March/Universidad Autonoma de Madrid

Palavras-chave:

Democracia. Apoio democrático. Satisfação. Envolvimento político. Comportamento eleitoral

Resumo

Não há um consenso claro sobre se as atitudes de apoio à democracia, de um lado, e a cidadania democrática, de outro, constituem um único domínio atitudinal, ou se são empiricamente distintas uma da outra. Em estudos empíricos de atitudes e comportamentos na Bulgária, Chile, Grécia, Hong Kong, Hungria, Itália, Espanha e Uruguai, encontramos provas claras de que essas atitudes são conceitual e empiricamente distintas, formando três dimensões atitudinais diferentes: apoio difuso à democracia, satisfação com o desempenho da democracia e indiferença política (que podem ser divididas ainda nos clássicos clusters “interno” e “externo” de eficácia). Esses três grupos têm correlatos comportamentais bem diferentes: a insatisfação leva a votos contra o partido que está no poder; uma falta de apoio difuso ao sistema está associada ao voto nos partidos antidemocráticos; e a indiferença leva a um baixo envolvimento dos cidadãos na política democrática. Não encontramos provas consistentes de que o apoio difuso à democracia (um componente chave da legitimidade do regime) dependa da satisfação com o desempenho da democracia.

 

Abstract

There is no clear consensus whether attitudes supportive of democarcy and democratic citizenship constitute a single attitudinal domain, or are empirically distinct from each other.In empirical studies os attitudes and behavior in Bulgaria, Chile, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Uruguay, we find clear evidence that such attitudes ares both conceptually and empirically distinct, forming three different attitudinal performance of democracy, and political disaffection.These threee clusters have distinctly different behavioral correlates: disatisfaction leads to votes against the incumbent party; a lack of diffuse system support is associated with votes for anti-democratic parties; and disaffection leads to low citizen involvement in democratic politics. We find no consistent evidence that diffuse support for democracy is dependent on satisfaction with the performance of democracy.

Key words: democracy, support for democracy, satisfaction, political involvement, electoral behavior

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Biografia do Autor

Richard Gunther, Ohio State University

Richard Gunther (Ph.D., U.C. Berkeley, 1977), Professor Emeritus, has research interests in Southern Europe, transitions to and consolidation of democracy, electoral behavior, political parties, and comparative political institutions and public policy. He has served as co-chair of the SSRC subcommittee on Southern Europe and as Executive Director of International Studies at Ohio State. He is currently the international coordinator of the 21-country Comparative National Elections Project. He is recipient of the Political Science Department's Distinguished Teaching Award, Ohio State University's Distinguished Scholar Award, as well as OSU's Faculty Award for Distinguished University Service.

José Ramón Monteiro, Instituto Juan March/Universidad Autonoma de Madrid

JOSÉ RAMÓN MONTERO es Catedrático de Ciencia Política en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM) y Profesor de Ciencia Política en el Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Ciencias Sociales, Instituto Juan March, Madrid. Doctor en Derecho por la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela. Ha enseñado en las de Granada, Santiago, Zaragoza, Cádiz y Complutense de Madrid, y ha sido Visiting Fellow en Harvard University, University of California en Berkeley y Ohio State University. Ha sido secretario y decano de la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de Cádiz, subdirector general del Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS), gestor del Programa de Estudios Sociales y Económicos de la Comisión Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnología (CICYT) y miembro del Standing Comittee for the Social Sciences, de laEuropean Science Foundation. Es miembro de la Academia Europea y de la European Social Survey, de cuyo Scientific Advisory Board forma parte. Es director del Departamento de Ciencia Política y Relaciones Internacionales de la UAM, y miembro del Consejo de Redacción de la Revista Española de Ciencia Política

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Publicado

2015-10-19

Como Citar

GUNTHER, R.; RAMÓN MONTEIRO, J. Legitimidade política em novas democracias. Opinião Pública, Campinas, SP, v. 9, n. 1, p. 1–43, 2015. Disponível em: https://periodicos.sbu.unicamp.br/ojs/index.php/op/article/view/8641117. Acesso em: 2 dez. 2021.

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