Este artigo examina duas diferenças entre os sistemas partidários das democracias industriais avançadas e os de países menos desenvolvidos, particularmente em termos do nível de institucionalização. O argumento geral é que os sistemas partidários dos países menos desenvolvidos são menos institucionalizados. De modo mais específico, mostramos primeiro que a maioria das democracias e semi-democracias em países menos desenvolvidos têm uma volatilidade eleitoral muito mais alta e menos estabilidade eleitoral do que as democracias industriais avançadas. E, em segundo lugar, boa parte da literatura sobre partidos e sistemas partidários pressupõe o contexto de sistemas partidários institucionalizados com partidos fortemente enraizados na sociedade e supõe ainda que vínculos programáticos e ideológicos estão na raiz dos vínculos estáveis entre eleitores e partidos. Nos sistemas partidários da maioria das democracias e semi-democracias dos países menos desenvolvidos, os vínculos programáticos e ideológicos entre eleitores e partidos são mais fracos. Nessa mesma direção, os vínculos entre eleitores e candidatos são mais personalistas nas democracias e semidemocracias dos países menos desenvolvidos do que nas democracias industriais avançadas.
This paper examines two differences between the party systems of the advanced industrial democracies and party systems of less developed countries, particularly in terms of the level of institutionalization. The overarching argument is that the party systems of less developed countries are less institutionalized. More specifically, we first show that most democracies and semi-democracies in less developed countries have much higher electoral volatility and less electoral stability than the advanced industrial democracies. Second, much of the literature on parties and party systems assumes the context of institutionalized party systems with strong party roots in society and further presupposes that programmatic or ideological linkages are at the root of the stable linkages between voters and parties. In the party systems of most democracies and semi-democracies in less developed countries, programmatic or ideological linkages between voters and parties are weaker. In this direction also, linkages between voters and candidates are more personalistic in democracies and semi-democracies of less developed countries than in the advanced industrial democracies.
Keywords: political parties, party systems, democracy, institutionalization.
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