Banner Portal
Teoria e institucionalização dos sistemas partidários após a terceira onda de democratização
PDF

Palavras-chave

Partidos políticos. Sistemas partidários. Democracia. Institucionalização

Como Citar

MAINWARING, Scott; TORCAL, Mariano. Teoria e institucionalização dos sistemas partidários após a terceira onda de democratização. Opinião Pública, Campinas, SP, v. 11, n. 2, p. 249–286, 2015. Disponível em: https://periodicos.sbu.unicamp.br/ojs/index.php/op/article/view/8641206. Acesso em: 13 abr. 2024.

Resumo

Este artigo examina duas diferenças entre os sistemas partidários das democracias industriais avançadas e os de países menos desenvolvidos, particularmente em termos do nível de institucionalização. O argumento geral é que os sistemas partidários dos países menos desenvolvidos são menos institucionalizados. De modo mais específico, mostramos primeiro que a maioria das democracias e semi-democracias em países menos desenvolvidos têm uma volatilidade eleitoral muito mais alta e menos estabilidade eleitoral do que as democracias industriais avançadas. E, em segundo lugar, boa parte da literatura sobre partidos e sistemas partidários pressupõe o contexto de sistemas partidários institucionalizados com partidos fortemente enraizados na sociedade e supõe ainda que vínculos programáticos e ideológicos estão na raiz dos vínculos estáveis entre eleitores e partidos. Nos sistemas partidários da maioria das democracias e semi-democracias dos países menos desenvolvidos, os vínculos programáticos e ideológicos entre eleitores e partidos são mais fracos. Nessa mesma direção, os vínculos entre eleitores e candidatos são mais personalistas nas democracias e semidemocracias dos países menos desenvolvidos do que nas democracias industriais avançadas.

 

Abstract

This paper examines two differences between the party systems of the advanced industrial democracies and party systems of less developed countries, particularly in terms of the level of institutionalization. The overarching argument is that the party systems of less developed countries are less institutionalized. More specifically, we first show that most democracies and semi-democracies in less developed countries have much higher electoral volatility and less electoral stability than the advanced industrial democracies. Second, much of the literature on parties and party systems assumes the context of institutionalized party systems with strong party roots in society and further presupposes that programmatic or ideological linkages are at the root of the stable linkages between voters and parties. In the party systems of most democracies and semi-democracies in less developed countries, programmatic or ideological linkages between voters and parties are weaker. In this direction also, linkages between voters and candidates are more personalistic in democracies and semi-democracies of less developed countries than in the advanced industrial democracies.

Keywords: political parties, party systems, democracy, institutionalization.

PDF

Referências

ALCÁNTARA, M. La elite parlamentaria latinoamericana y el continuo izquierda-derecha. In: HOFMEISTER, W.; THESING, J. (ed.). Transformación de los sistemas políticos en América Latina. Buenos Aires: Konrad Adenauer, 1995.

AMES, B. The deadlock of democracy in Brazil. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001.

BARNES, S. H. Representation in Italy: institutionalized tradition and electoral choice. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1977.

BARTOLINI, S.; MAIR, P. Identity, competition and electoral availability: the stabilization of european electorates, 1885-1985. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

BENDEL, P. Partidos políticos y sistemas de partidos en Centroamérica. In: NOHLEN, D. (ed.). Elecciones y sistemas de partidos en América Latina. San José: Instituto Interamericano de Derechos Humanos, 1993.

BIELASIAK, J. The institutionalization of electoral and party systems in postcommunist states. Comparative Politics, v. 34, n. 2, p. 189-210, 2002.

BUDGE, I. A new spatial theory of party competition: uncertainty, ideology and policy equilibria viewed comparatively and temporally. British Journal of Political Science, v. 24, n. 4, p. 443-467, 1994.

CHALMERS, D. The Social Democratic Party of Germany: from working class movement to modern political party. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964.

CREWE, I.; KING, A. Are british elections becoming more ‘presidential’?. In: JENNINGS, M. K.; MANN, T. E. (ed.). Elections at home and abroad: essays in honor of Warren E. Miller. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994.

CONAGHAN, C. M. The irrelevant right: Alberto Fujimori and the new politics of pragmatic Peru. In: MIDDLEBROOK, K. J. (ed.). Conservative parties, the right, and democracy in Latin America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

CONVERSE, P. E. The nature of belief systems in mass publics. In: APTER, D. (ed.) Ideology and discontent. New York: The Free Press, 1964.

CONVERSE, P. E. Of time and stability. Comparative Political Studies, v. 2, n. 2, p. 139-171, 1969.

CONVERSE, P. E.; PIERCE, R. Political representation in France. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986.

COPPEDGE, M. The dynamic diversity of latin american party systems. Party Politics, v. 4, n. 4, p. 547-568, 1998.

COX, G. Centripetal and centrifugal incentives in electoral systems. American Journal of Political Science, v. 34, n. 4, p. 903-935, 1990.

DALTON, R. J. Political parties and political representation: party supporters and party elites in nine nations. Comparative Political Studies, v. 18, n. 3, p. 276-299, 1985.

DALTON, R. J.; MCALLISTER, I.; WATTENBERG, M. The consequences of partisan dealignment. In: DALTON, R. J.; WATTENBERG, M. (ed.). Parties without partisans: political change in advanced industrial democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

DIX, R. Democratization and the institutionalization of latin american political parties. Comparative Political Studies, v. 24, n. 1, p. 488-496, 1992.

DOWNS, A. An economic theory of democracy. New York: Harper and Row, 1957.

ENELOW, J.; HINICH, M. The spatial theory of voting: an introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

FLEURY, C. J.; LEWIS-BECK, M. S. Anchoring the french voter: ideology versus party. The Journal of Politics, v. 55, n. 4, p. 1100-1109, 1993.

FIORINA, M. Retrospective voting in american national elections. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981.

FUCHS, D.; KLINGEMANN, H. D. The left-right schema. In: JENNINGS, M. K. et al. Continuities in political action: a longitudinal study of political orientations in three western democracies. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1990.

GRZYMALA-BUSSE, A. The effects of communist party transformation on the institutionalization of party systems. In: BOZÉKI, A.; ISHIYAMA, J. (ed.). The communist successor parties of Central and Eastern Europe. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2002.

GUEVARA MANN, C. Forsaken virtue: an analysis of the political behavior of panamanian legislators, 1984-1999. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Notre Dame, 2001.

GUNTHER, R. P.; HOPKIN, J. A crisis of institutionalization: the collapse of the UCD in Spain. In: GUNTHER, R. P.; MONTERO, J. R.; LINZ, J. J. (ed.). Political parties: old concepts and new challenges. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

GUNTHER, R.; DIAMOND, L. Species of political parties: a new typology. Party Politics, v. 9, n. 2, p. 167-199, 2003.

HAGOPIAN, F. Traditional politics and regime change in Brazil. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

HARTLYN, J. The politics of coalition rule in Colombia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

HELLER, W. B.; MERSHON, C. Party switching in the italian chamber of deputies. The Journal of Politics, v. 67, n. 2, p. 536-559, 2005.

HIBBING, J.; THEISS-MORSE, E. Stealth democracy: americans’ beliefs about how government should work. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

HINICH, M.; MUNGER, M. Ideology and the theory of political choice. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994.

HUNTINGTON, S. Political order in changing societies. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968.

HUNTINGTON, S. The third wave: democratization in the late twentieth century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.

INGLEHART, R. The impact of values, cognitive level and social background. In: BARNES, S. H. et al. (ed.). Political action. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1979.

INGLEHART, R. The changing structure of political cleavages in western society. In: DALTON, R. J.; FLANAGAN, S.; BECK, P. (ed.). Electoral change in advanced industrial democracies: realignment or dealignment?. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.

INGLEHART, R. Culture shift in advanced industrial democracy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.

INGLEHART, R.; KLINGEMANN, H. D. Party identification, ideological preference and the leftright dimension among western mass publics. In: BUDGE, I.; CREWE, I.; FARLIE, D. (ed.). Party identification and beyond: representations of voting and party competition. London: John Wiley and Sons, 1976.

IVERSEN, T. The logics of electoral politics: spatial, directional, and mobilizational effects. Comparative Political Studies, v. 27, n. 2, p. 155-189, 1994a.

IVERSEN, T. Political leadership and representation in west european democracies: a test of three models of voting. American Journal of Political Science, v. 38, n. 1, p. 45-74, 1994b.

JANDA, K. Political parties: a cross national survey. New York: Free Press, 1980.

JOHNSON, E. P. Streams of least resistance: the institutionalization of political parties and democracy in Indonesia. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Virginia, 2002.

KAASE, M. Is there personalization in politics? Candidates and voting behavior in Germany. International Political Science Review, v. 15, p. 211-230, 1994.

KALYVAS, S. N. The rise of christian democracy in Western Europe. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996.

KIEWET, R. D.; KINDER, D. Economic discontent and political behavior: the role of personal grievances and collective economic judgments in congressional voting. American Journal of Political Science, v. 23, n. 3, p. 495-527, 1979.

KING, A. Do leaders’ personalities really matter?. In: KING, A. (ed.). Leaders’ personalities and the outcomes of democratic elections. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002a.

KING, A. Conclusions and implications. In: KING, A. (ed.). Leaders’ personalities and the outcomes of democratic elections. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002b.

KITSCHELT, H. The transformation of european social democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

KITSCHELT, H. Linkages between citizens and politicians in democratic politics. Comparative Political Studies, v. 33, n. 6/7, p. 845-879, 2000.

KITSCHELT, H. Party competition in Latin America and post-communist Eastern Europe: divergence of patterns, similarity of explanatory variables. Filadélfia, 27-31 de agosto, 2003. Trabalho apresentado na 100ª Reunião Anual da American Political Science Association.

KITSCHELT, H. et al. Post-communist party systems: competition, representation, and inter-party competition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

KLINGEMANN, H. D. Measuring ideological conceptualizations. In: BARNES, S. H. et al. (ed.). Political action. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1979.

KNUTSEN, O. The partisan and value based component of the left-right self-placement: comparative study. International Political Science Review, v. 18, n. 2, p. 191-225, 1997.

KUENZI, M.; LAMBRIGHT, G. Party system institutionalization in 30 african countries. Party Politics, v. 7, n. 4, p. 437-468, 2001.

LAPONCE, J. A. Left and right: the topography of political perceptions. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981.

LEGG, K.; LEMARCHAND, R. Political clientelism and development: a preliminary analysis. Comparative Politics, v. 4, n. 2, p. 149-178, 1972.

LEVITSKY, S. Transforming labor-based parties in Latin America: argentine peronism in comparative perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

LIPSET, S. M.; ROKKAN, S. Cleavage structures, party systems, and voter alignments: an introduction. In: LIPSET, S. M.; ROKKAN, S. (ed.). Party systems and voter alignments: crossnational perspectives. New York: Free Press, 1967.

LUNA, J. P.; ZECHMEISTER, E. J. Political representation in Latin America: a study of elitemass congruence in nine countries. Comparative Political Studies, v. 38, n. 4, p. 388-416, 2005.

MAINWARING, S. Rethinking party systems in the third wave of democratization: the case of Brazil. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999.

MAINWARING, S. Party objectives in contexts of authoritarianism or fragile democracy: a dual game. In: MAINWARING, S.; SCULLY, T. R. (ed.). Christian democracy in Latin America: electoral competition and regime conflicts. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003.

MAINWARING, S.; BRINKS, D.; PÉREZ-LIÑAN, A. Classifying political regimes in Latin America, 1945-1999. Studies in Comparative International Development, v. 36, n. 1, p. 37-65, 2001.

MAINWARING, S.; SCULLY, T. R. Party systems in Latin America. In: MAINWARING, S.; SCULLY, T. R. (ed.). Building democratic institutions: party systems in Latin America. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1995.

MAIR, P. Party system change: approaches and interpretations. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.

MARKOWSKI, R. Party system institutionalization and democratic consolidation: on the idiosyncrasies of the polish case. In: FRENTZEL-ZAGORSKA, J.; WASILEWSKI, J. (ed.). The second generation of democratic elites in Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw: Institute of Political Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2000.

MAYORGA, R. A. Outsiders and neo-populism: the road to plebiscitary democracy. In: MAINWARING, S.; BEJARANO, A. M.; PIZARRO, E. (ed.). When representation fails: the crisis of democratic representation in the Andes. Stanford: Stanford University Press. No prelo.

MÉNY, Y. Government and politics in Western Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

MERRILL, S.; GROFMAN, B. A unified theory of voting: directional and proximity spatial models. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

MOLINA, J.; PÉREZ, C. Radical change at the ballot box: causes and consequences of electoral behavior in Venezuela’s 2000 elections. Latin American Politics and Society, v. 46, n. 1, p. 103-134, 2004.

MOSER, R. The emergence of political parties in post-Soviet Russia. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1995.

MOSER, R. Electoral systems and the number of parties in post-communist states. World Politics, v. 51, n. 3, p. 359-384, 1999.

MOSER, R. Unexpected outcomes: electoral systems, political parties, and representation in Russia. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001.

O’DONNELL, G. Illusions about consolidation. The Journal of Democracy, v. 7, n. 2, p. 34-51, 1996.

OSTIGUY, P. Peronism and anti-peronism: class-cultural cleavages and political identity in Argentina. Ph. D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1998.

PANEBIANCO, A. Political parties: organization and power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

PAYNE, M. et al. Democracies in development: politics and reform in Latin America. Washington DC: Inter-American Development Bank and the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2002.

PEDERSEN, M. N. Changing patterns of electoral volatility in european party systems: explorations in explanation. In: DAALDER, H.; MAIR, P. (ed.). Western european party systems: continuity and change. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1983.

PIZZORNO, A. Interests and parties in pluralism. In: BERGER, S. (ed.). Organizing interests in Western Europe: pluralism, corporatism, and the transformation of politics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

PRZEWORSKI, A. Institutionalization of voting patterns, or is mobilization the source of decay?. American Political Science Review, v. 69, n. 1, p. 49-67, 1975.

RABINOWITZ, G.; MACDONALD, S. E. A directional theory of issue voting. American Political Science Review, v. 83, n. 1, p. 93-121, 1989.

RABINOWITZ, G.; MACDONALD, S. E.; LISTHAUG, O. Old players in an old game: party strategy in multiparty systems. Comparative Political Studies, v. 24, n. 2, p. 147-185, 1991.

RANDALL, V.; SVÅSAND, L. Party institutionalization in new democracies. Party Politics, v. 8, n. 1, p. 5-29, 2002.

REMMER, K. The political impact of economic crisis in Latin America in the 1980s. American Political Science Review, v. 85, n. 3, p. 777-800, 1991.

ROBERTS, K. M. Neoliberalism and the transformation of populism in Latin America: the peruvian case. World Politics, v. 48, n. 1, p. 82-116, 1995.

ROBERTS, K. M.; WIBBELS, E. Party systems and electoral volatility in Latin America: a test of economic, institutional, and structural explanations. American Political Science Review, v. 93, n. 3, p. 575-590, 1999.

ROSE, R.; MUNRO, N. Elections and parties in new european democracies. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2003.

SÁNCHEZ-CUENCA, I. How can governments be accountable if voters vote ideologically?. Center for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences, Institute Juan March, may 2003. Working Paper 191.

SANI, G.; SARTORI, G. Polarization, fragmentation, and competition in western democracies. In: DAALDER, H.; MAIR, P. (ed.). Western european party systems. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1983.

SARTORI, G. Parties and party systems: a framework for analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

SARTORI, G. Video-power. Government and Opposition, v. 24, n. 1, p. 39-53, 1989.

SCHATTSCHNEIDER, E. E. Party government. New York: Farrar and Reinhart, 1942.

SCHEDLER, A. Under- and over-institutionalization: some ideal typical propositions concerning old and new party systems. University of Notre Dame, Kellogg Institute for International Studies, march 1995. Working Paper #213.

SCOTT, J. Patron-client politics and political change in Southeast Asia. American Political Science Review, v. 66, n. 1, p. 91-113, 1972.

SCULLY, T. R. Rethinking the center: cleavages, critical junctures, and party evolution in Chile. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992.

SIMON, H. A. The science of the artificial. 3th ed. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996.

SILVEIRA, F. A decisão do voto no Brasil. Porto Alegre: Edipucrs, 1998.

STOCKTON, H. Political parties, party systems, and democracy in East Asia: lessons from Latin America. Comparative Political Studies, v. 34, n. 1, p. 94-119, 2001.

STOKES, S. Mandates and democracy: neoliberalism by surprise in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

STOKES, S. Perverse accountability: a formal model of machine politics with evidence from Argentina. American Political Science Review. No prelo.

STONER WEISS, K. The limited reach of Russia’s party system: under-institutionalization in dual transitions. Politics and Society, v. 29, n. 3, p. 385-414, 2001.

TANAKA, M. From crisis to collapse of the party systems and dilemmas of democratic representation: Peru and Venezuela. In: MAINWARING, S.; BEJARANO, A. M.; PIZARRO, E. (ed.). When representation fails: the crisis of democratic representation in the Andes. Stanford: Stanford University Press. No prelo.

TAVITS, M. The development of stable party support: electoral dynamics in post-communist Europe. American Journal of Political Science, v. 49, n. 2, p. 283-298, 2005.

TÓKA, G. Political parties and democratic consolidation in East Central Europe. In: DIAMOND, L. et al. (ed.). Consolidating the third wave democracies: themes and perspectives. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1997.

TORCAL, M.; GUNTHER, R. P.; MONTERO, J. R. Anti-party sentiments in Southern Europe. In: GUNTHER, R. P.; MONTERO, J. R.; LINZ, J. J. (ed.). Political parties: old concepts and new challenges. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

TORCAL, M.; MAINWARING, S. The political recrafting of social bases of party competition: Chile, 1973-95. The British Journal of Political Science, v. 33, p. 55-84, 2003.

UNDP, United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

VALENZUELA, J. S. The origins and transformations of the chilean party system. In: DEVOTO, F. J.; DI TELLA, T. S. (ed.). Political culture, social movements and democratic transitions in South America in the XXth century. Milan: Feltrinelli, 1997.

VAN COTT, D. L. Party system development and indigenous populations in Latin America: the bolivian case. Party Politics, v. 6, n. 2, p. 155-174, 2000.

WEFFORT, F. O populismo na política brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra, 1978.

WESTHOLM, A. Distance versus direction: the illusory defeat of the proximity theory of electoral choice. American Political Science Review, v. 91, n. 4, p. 865-883, 1997.

WEYLAND, K. Neoliberal populism in Latin America and Eastern Europe. Comparative Politics, v. 31, n. 4, p. 379-401, 1999.

WHITE, S.; ROSE, R.; MCALLISTER, I. How Russia votes. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House, 1997.

A Opinião Pública utiliza a licença do Creative Commons (CC), preservando assim, a integridade dos artigos em ambiente de acesso aberto.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.