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Poder direcionador? Um estudo comparativo de opinião pública e distribuição de renda
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Palavras-chave

Opinião pública. Distribuição de renda. Desenvolvimento econômico. Democracia. Survey

Como Citar

WEAKLIEM, David; ANDERSEN, Robert; HEATH, Anthony. Poder direcionador? Um estudo comparativo de opinião pública e distribuição de renda. Opinião Pública, Campinas, SP, v. 11, n. 2, p. 366–400, 2015. Disponível em: https://periodicos.sbu.unicamp.br/ojs/index.php/op/article/view/8641209. Acesso em: 19 abr. 2024.

Resumo

Nos últimos anos, vários estudos têm examinado a influência da opinião pública sobre as políticas públicas, mas poucos têm considerado a influência da opinião sobre as condições sociais. São questões separadas, uma vez que as políticas podem não ter os efeitos pretendidos e a opinião pode influenciar diretamente os resultados, à parte das políticas públicas. Este trabalho examina a relação entre opinião pública e desigualdade de renda em uma amostra de cerca de cinqüenta países e conclui que a distribuição de renda é mais igual em nações onde as opiniões são mais igualitárias, e que essa relação é mais forte nas democracias. Porém, a associação com as opiniões de pessoas de renda acima da média é mais forte do que aquela apresentada pelas opiniões das classes médias, sugerindo que as pessoas com renda mais alta têm mais influência. A análise das fontes das diferenças nacionais em opinião indica que o igualitarismo aumenta com o desenvolvimento econômico, ao contrário do que sustentam muitos autores. A diversidade étnica e a experiência do regime comunista parecem reduzir os sentimentos igualitários.

 

Abstract

In recent years, a number of studies have examined the influence of public opinion on government policy, but few have considered the influence of opinion on social conditions. These are separate questions, since policies may not have the intended effects, and opinion may influence outcomes directly apart from government policy. This paper examines the relationship between public opinion and income inequality in a sample of about 50 nations. It finds that the distribution of income is more equal in nations where opinions are more egalitarian, and that this relationship is stronger in democracies. However, the association with opinions of people with above-average incomes is stronger than the association with average opinions, suggesting that people with higher incomes have more influence. Analysis of the sources of national differences in opinion suggests that egalitarianism increases with economic development, contrary to the claims of many authors. Ethnic diversity and the experience of communist rule appear to reduce egalitarian sentiments.

Keywords: public opinion, income distribution, economic development, democracy, survey.

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