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Democracias liberal e iliberal na América Latina
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Palavras-chave

democracias liberal e iliberal. Direitos políticos e civis. Transição política

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SMITH, Peter H.; ZIEGLER, Melissa R. Democracias liberal e iliberal na América Latina. Opinião Pública, Campinas, SP, v. 15, n. 2, p. 356–385, 2015. Disponível em: https://periodicos.sbu.unicamp.br/ojs/index.php/op/article/view/8641335. Acesso em: 18 jun. 2024.

Resumo

Este artigo examina a incidência da democracia liberal e “iliberal” na América Latina, de 1978 a 2004. Demonstra, em primeiro lugar, que a democracia iliberal - que combina eleições livres e justas com limitações sistemáticas aos direitos dos cidadãos - tornou-se a regra em toda a região. Em segundo lugar, mostra que as transições de regimes quase sempre levaram à variante iliberal da democracia. Terceiro, a análise logit de eventos raros revela que duas variáveis - hiperinflanção e eleições presidenciais - tiveram um impacto considerável sobre o movimento na direção de uma democracia mais plena. Como uma espécie de choque econômico de curto prazo, a hiperinflação produziu uma insatisfação generalizada; nessas circunstâncias, uma vez chegada a chance de votar, os cidadãos elegeram candidatos reformistas que, tão logo no poder, removeram obstáculos ao exercício de direitos civis. Um tal cenário aumenta substancialmente a probabilidade da transição da democracia iliberal para a democracia liberal.

 

Abstract:

This paper examines the incidence of liberal and “illiberal” democracy in Latin America from 1978 through 2004. It demonstrates, first, that illiberal democracy - which combines free and fair elections with systematic constraints on civil liberties - has become the norm throughout the region. Second, it shows that regime transitions have most often ended not in liberal democracy, but in illiberal democracy. Third, rare events logit analysis reveals that three variables - hyperinflation, general strikes, and presidential elections - have had significant impact on transitions toward fuller democracy. As a form of short-term economic shock, hyperinflation generates widespread discontent which sometimes results in general strikes; given the opportunity to vote, citizens elect reformist opposition candidates who, once in office, remove controls on civil liberties. This scenario substantially increases the likelihood of transition from illiberal to liberal democracy. Keywords: liberal and illiberal democracy; political and civil rights; political transition

 

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