As covariantes da confiança política na América Latina

Autores

  • Célia Mara Ladeia Colen Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Palavras-chave:

Instituições democráticas. Confiança política. Abordagem culturalista. Abordagem institucionalista. Modelo hierárquico linear

Resumo

As abordagens culturalistas, baseadas nos fatores relacionados com a socialização, e institucionalistas, baseadas nos fatores relacionados à experiência com o sistema político, competem pela explicação dos fatores relacionados aos baixos níveis de confiança política na América Latina. Este artigo faz uma breve revisão das duas perspectivas, compara seus poderes preditivos para explicar a confiança política na região. A partir do Latinobarômetro 2005, aplicou-se a técnica do modelo hierárquico linear com o objetivo de considerar a dependência entre as observações no nível do país. A confiança política é maior entre os que apóiam o presidente; entre aqueles que estão em países considerados mais democráticos; entre os indivíduos que avaliam positivamente a situação econômica, as políticas públicas e a capacidade do governo para combater a corrupção e entre os indivíduos com maior sofisticação política. As variáveis culturais, por sua vez, quais sejam, a confiança interpessoal e a avaliação dos concidadãos também aumentam a confiança política, mas têm efeito muito menor do que as variáveis institucionais.

 

Abstract:

Culturalist approaches, based on factors related to socialization, and institutionalist one, based on factors related to experience with the political system, compete for the explanation of the factors related to low levels of political trust in Latin America. This paper briefly reviews these two approaches and compares their predictive power to explain political trust in the region. Using data from Latinobarometro 2005, the technique of hierarchical linear model it was applied with the purpose of considering the dependence among observations at country level. The political trust is higher among those who support the president; among those who are in countries that are considered the most democratic; individuals who positively evaluate the economic situation, public policies and government capacity to combat corruption; individuals with greater political sophistication. The cultural variables, interpersonal trust and the assessment of co-citizens also enhance political trust, but have much smaller effect than the institutional variables.

Keywords: democratic institutions; political trust; culturalist approach; institutionalist approach; hierarchical linear model

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Referências

ALMOND, G.; VERBA, S. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963.

ANDERSON, C. J. Center on Democratic Performance Working, Paper, Binghamton University, n.102 [Online]. Political Satisfaction in Old and New Democracies, 2001. Disponível em: <http://cdp.binghamton.edu/papers.html>.

ANDERSON, C.J; GUILORY, C. A. “Political Institutions and satisfaction with Democracy: A cross-national analysis of consensus and majoritarian systems”. The American Political Science Review, v.91, p.66-81, Mar. 1997.

BOWLER, S.; DONOVAN, T. The Effects of Winning and Losing on Attitudes about Political Institutions and Democracy in the United States. Chicago IL, 3-6, Midwest Political Science Association Meeting, Apr. 2003.

BRATTON, M.; MATTES, R. Support for democracy in Africa: Intrinsic or Instrumental? British Journal of Political Science, v.31, p.447-474. 2001.

BRATTON, M.; MATTES, R. Wide But Shallow: Popular support for democracy in Africa. [Online] Afrobarometer Working Papers, n.19. 2002. Disponível em: .

CASTRO, M. M. M. Determinantes do Comportamento Eleitoral: A centralidade da Sofisticação Política. Tese de Doutorado, IUPERJ. 1994.

CATTEBERG, G; MORENO, A. “The Individual Bases of Political Trust: Trends in new and established democracies”. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, v.18, n. 1, p.31-48, Aug. 2005.

CROZIER, M.; HUNTINGTON, S.; WATANUKI, J. The Crisis of Democracy: Report on the Governability of Democracies to the Trilateral Commission. In: PHARR, S. J.; PUTNAM, R. (eds.). Desaffected Democracies: What´s Troubling the Trilateral Coutries? Princeton: Princeton University Press, p.3-27, 1975.

EASTON, D. A Systems Analysis of Political Life. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc, 1965.

GRONKE, P.; LEVITT, B. Delegative Democracy and Confidence in Legislatures: Explaining institutional authority and trust in Latin America. Las Vegas. p.7-9, NV. Paper presented at the XXV Congress of the Latin American Studies Association, Sept. 2004.

HETHERINGTON, M. J. “The Political Relevance of Political Trust”. American Political Science Review, v.92, p.791-808. 1998.

HUNTINGTON, S. P. Foreword. In: PHARR, S. J.; PUTNAM, R. (eds.). Desaffected Democracies: What’s Troubling the Trilateral Countries? Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

INGLEHART, R. Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, economic, and political change in 43 societies. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.

KING, G.; HONAKER, J. JOSEPH, A.; SCHEVE, K. “Analysing incomplete data: An alternative algorithm for multiple imputation.” American Political Science Review, 95(1), p.46-69, 2001.

LAGOS, M. “A Máscara Sorridente da América Latina.” Opinião Pública, Campinas, vol.6, n.1, p.1-16, abril, 2000.

LATINOBARÔMETRO. Informe de Prensa, 2006.

LEVI, M.; STOKER, L. “Political Trust and Trustworthiness.” Annual Review of Political Science, n.3, p.475-507, 2000.

LOPES, D. M. N. N. “Para Pensar a Confiança e a Cultura Política na América Latina.” Opinião Pública, Campinas, vol. X, n.1, p.162-167, maio, 2004.

MAINWARING, S.; BRINKS, D.; PÉREZ-LIÑAN, A. “Classificando Regimes Políticos na América Latina, 1945-1999.” Dados, Rio de Janeiro, v.44, n.4, p.645-687, 2001.

MATTES, R.; BRATTON, M. “Learning about Democracy in Africa: Awareness, Performance, and Experience.” America Journal of Political Science, v.51, n.1, p.192- 217, Jan, 2007.

MCALLISTER, I. “The Economic Performance of Governments.” In: NORRIS, P. (org). Critical Citizens: Global support for democratic government. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p.88-203, 1999.

MILLER, A.; LISHTAUG, O. “Political Performance e Institutional Trust.” In: NORRIS, P. (org.) Critical Citizens: global support for democratic government. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p.204-216.

MISHLER, W.; ROSE, R. “What are the Origins of Political Trust? Testing Institutional and Cultural Theories in Post-Communist Societies.” Comparative Political Studies, v.34, n.1, p.30-62, Feb. 2001.

MOISÉS, J. A. “A desconfiança nas instituições democráticas.” Opinião Pública, v.11, n.1, Campinas, mar. 2005a.

MOISÉS, J. A. “Cidadania, confiança e instituições democráticas.” Lua Nova, n.65, São Paulo, maio/ago. 2005b.

NORRIS, P. “Introduction: The Growth of Critical Citizens?” In: NORRIS, P. (org.). Critical Citizens: global support for democratic government. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p.1-27, 1999.

NORRIS, P. Institutional Explanations for Political Support. In: NORRIS, P. (org.). Critical Citizens: global support for democratic government. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p.217-235. 1999a.

NORRIS, P. Conclusion: The Growth of Critical Citizens and its Consequences. In: NORRIS, P. (org.). Critical Citizens: global support for democratic government. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p.257-272, 1999b.

NORRIS, P.; NEWTON, K. Confidence in Public Institutions: Faith, Culture, or Performance? In: PHARR, S. J.; PUTNAN, R. (ed.). Desaffected Democracies: What’s Troubling the Trilateral Countries? Princeton: Princeton University Press, p.52-73, 2000.

POWER, T. J.; JAMISON, G. D. “Desconfiança Política na América Latina.” Opinião Pública, Campinas, vol. XI, n. 1, p.64-93, mar. 2005.

PUTNAM, R. D.; PHARR, S. J.; DALTON, R. J. Introduction: What’s Troubling the Trilateral Democracies? In: PHARR, S. J.; PUTNAN, R. (ed.). Desaffected Democracies: What’s Troubling the Trilateral Countries? Princeton, Princeton University Press, p.3-27. 2000.

RAUDENBUSH, S. W.; BRYK, A. Hierarchical Linear Models. Applicattions and Data Analysis Methods, California: Sage Publications, 2002.

REIS, F. W.; CASTRO, M. M. M. “Democracia, Civismo e Cinismo: Um estudo empírico sobre normas e racionalidade.” Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais, vol. 16, n.45, São Paulo, fevereiro, 2001.

RENNÓ, L.; CASTRO, H. Assessing the Validity and Reliability of Interpersonal Trust Measures [Online]. Cross-National Surveys, 2008. Disponível em: <http://sitemason.vanderbilt.edu/files/fFbeBq/Renno_Measuring_Interpersonal_Tru st_revised%5b1%5d.pdf>.

ROSE, R.; SHIN, D. C.; MUNRO, N. “Tensions Between the Democratic Ideal and Reality: South Korea.” In: NORRIS, P. (ed.). Critical Citizens: global support for democratic government. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p.146-168, 1999.

ROSE, R. “Perspectives on political behavior in time and space.” In: DALTON, R. J.; KLINGEMANN, H. (eds.). Oxford Handbook of Political Behavior. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p.283-301. 2007.

ROVNER, H. Support for Democracy in Latin America in the 1990s: A comparative empirical inquiry. Tese de doutorado, Department of Government, University of Essex, 2005.

SELIGSON, M. A. “The Renaissance of Political Culture or the Renaissance of the Ecological Fallacy?” Comparative Politics, Apr. 2002.

Downloads

Publicado

2015-10-27

Como Citar

Colen, C. M. L. (2015). As covariantes da confiança política na América Latina. Opinião Pública, 16(1), 1–27. Recuperado de https://periodicos.sbu.unicamp.br/ojs/index.php/op/article/view/8641342

Edição

Seção

Artigos