Especialización tecnológica, captura y formación de competencias bajo integración de mercados: comparación entre Asia y América Latina

Autores

Palavras-chave:

Especialización tecnológica. Captura. Cambio estructural. Asia. América Latina.

Resumo

Este trabajo tiene como objetivo examinar la evolución de la especialización, convergencia y el proceso de formación de competencias tecnológicas de dos conjuntos de países – latinoamericanos y asiáticos – entre los periodos 1985-1995 y 1999-2008. Entre ambos periodos, la mayor parte de estos países registraron mayores niveles de integración con el mundo en sus mercados de bienes, servicios y capitales. El trabajo concluye: i) no existe un único patrón de convergencia; ii) el grupo latinoamericano responde a un patrón de especialización sobre tecnologías vinculadas a recursos naturales mientras que el asiático explota el paradigma electrónico; iii) la persistencia es un fenómeno ligado a la des-especialización y se concentra en competencias centrales y marginales; iv) ante elevados ritmos de captura, la movilidad puede constituirse más relevante que la persistencia y es escasamente explicada por la acumulación tecnológica; v) no hay evidencia de que la especialización latinoamericana en tecnologías de oportunidad tecnológica estancada haya supuesto una restricción a su dinamismo tecnológico.

 

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to observe the evolution of technological specialization, convergence and the process of building technological competences for two groups of countries – Asia and Latin America – between 1985-1995 and 1999-2008. Between these periods, most of the countries in these groups registered growing levels of global integration in terms of goods, services and capital markets. The main conclusions of the study are: i) there is no unique pattern of technological convergence between countries; ii) Latin-American countries specialize in technologies linked to natural resources while the Asian countries explored the electronic and telecommunication paradigms; iii) persistency is a phenomenon associated to de-specialization and is concentrated in marginal and core competences; iv) considering rapid rates of catch-up, mobility can become more relevant than persistency and can be only marginally explained by technological accumulation; v) there is no evidence that LatinAmerican specialization on stagnant technologies would be a constraint to its technological dynamism.

Keywords: Technological specialization; Catching-up; Structural change; Asia; Latin America.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Ana Urraca Ruiz, Universidad Federal Fluminense

Doutora em Ciencias Econômicas pela Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (Espanha, 1998). Atualmente é Professora Associada III no Departamento de Economia da Universidade Federal Fluminense participando dos cursos de Graduação e Pós-Graduação. 

Referências

ALCORTA, L.; PERES, W. Innovation systems and technological specialisation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Research Policy, 26, p. 857-881, 1998.

ARCHIBUGI, D.; COCO, A. Measuring technological capabilities at the country level: a survey and a menu for choice. Research Policy, 34, p. 175-194, 2005.

ARCHIBUGI, D; PIANTA, M. The technological specialization of advanced countries. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1992.

ARCHIBUGI, D. Aggregate convergence and sectoral specialisation in innovation. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 4, p. 17-33, 1994 BRUSONI, S.; GEUNA, A. An international comparison of sectoral knowledge bases: persistence and integration in the pharmaceutical industry. Research Policy, 32, p. 1897- 1912, 2003.

CAMERONA, G.; PROUDMANB, J.; REDDING, S. Technological convergence, R&D, trade and productivity growth. European Economic Review, 49, p. 775-807, 2005.

COHEN, W.M. Empirical studies of innovative activity. In: STONEMAN, P. (Ed.). Handbook of the economics of innovation and technological change. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd., 1995. p. 183-264.

COHEN, W.M; LEVINTHAL, D. A. Absorptive capacity: a new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, p. 128-152, 1990.

DOSI, G. Sources, procedures and microeconomics effects of innovation. Journal of Economic Literature, 26, p. 1120-1171, 1988.

GRUPP, H.; SCHOMACH, U. Patent statistics in the age of globalisation: new legal procedures, new analytical methods, new economic interpretation. Research Policy, 28, p. 377-396, 1999.

GWARTNEY, J.; HALL, J.; LAWSON, R. Economic freedom of the world: 2010 Annual Report. Vancouver, BC: The Fraser Institute, 2010. Datos extraídos del web-site: www.freetheworld.com.

HUANG, H. T.; MIOZZO, M. Patterns of technological specialisation in Latin-American and East Asian countries: an analysis of patents and trade flows. Economic Innovation and New Technologies, v. 13, n. 7, p. 615-653, 2004.

IMBS, J.; WACZIARG, R. Stages of diversification. American Economic Review, v. 93, n. 1, p. 63-86, 2003.

JUNGMITTAG, A. Innovations, technological specialisation and economic growth in the EU. International Economics and Economic Policy, 1, p. 247-273, 2004.

LALL, S. The technological structure and performance of developing country manufactured exports, 1985-98. Oxford Development Studies, v. 28, n. 3, p. 338-363, 2000.

LAURSEN, K. The impact of technological opportunity on the dynamics of trade performance. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 10, p. 341-357, 1999.

LE BAS, C.; SIERRA, C. Location versus home country advantages. In: R&D activities: some further results on multinationals’ locational strategies. Research Policy, 31, p. 589- 609, 2002.

MALERBA, F.; ORSENIGO, L.; PERETTO, P. Persistence of innovative activities, sectoral patterns of innovation and international technological specialization. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 15, p. 801-826, 1997.

MALERBA, F.; MONTOBBIO, F. Exploring factors affecting international technological specialization. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 13, p. 411-434, 2003.

MANCUSI, M. L. International technological specialization in industrial countries: patterns and dynamics. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, v. 137, n. 4, p. 593-621, 2001.

MANCUSI, M. L. Geographical concentration and the dynamics of countries specialization. Economics of Innovation and New Technologies, v. 12, n. 3, p. 269-291, 2003.

MELICIANI, V. The impact of technological specialisation on national performance in a balance-of-payments-constrained growth model. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 13, p. 101-118, 2002.

MIOZZO, M. Sectoral specialisation in East Asia and Latin America compared. Brazilian Journal of Political Economy, v. 22, n. 4 (88), p. 48-68, 2002.

MONTOBBIO, F.; RAMPA, F. The impact of technology and structural change on export performance in nine developing countries. World Development, v. 33, n. 4, p. 527-547, 2005.

NELSON, R.; WINTER, S. In search of a useful theory of innovation. Research Policy, v. 6, n. 1, p. 36-76, 1977.

PATEL, P.; PAVITT, K. The technological competences in the world’s largest firms: complex and path dependent, but not much variety. Research Policy, 26, p. 141-156, 1997.

PIANTA, M.; MELICIANI, V. Technological specialization and economic performance in OECD countries. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, v. 8, n. 2, p. 157-174, 1996.

STOLPE, M. Technology and the dynamics of specialization in open economies. Tubingen Mohr, 1995.

UNCTAD. Handbook of statistics. United Nations, 2009.

URRACA-RUIZ, A. The ‘technological’ dimension of structural change under market integration. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 27, p. 1-18, 2013.

VERTOVA, G. National technological specialisation and the highest technological opportunities historically. Technovation, 21, p. 605-612, 2001.

Van ZEEBROECK, N.; Van POTTELSBERGHE de la POTTERIE, B.; HAN, W. Issues in measuring the degree of technological specialisation with patent data. Scientometrics, v. 66, n. 3, p. 481-492, 2006.

Downloads

Publicado

2015-12-11

Como Citar

RUIZ, A. U. Especialización tecnológica, captura y formación de competencias bajo integración de mercados: comparación entre Asia y América Latina. Economia e Sociedade, Campinas, SP, v. 22, n. 3, p. 641–673, 2015. Disponível em: https://periodicos.sbu.unicamp.br/ojs/index.php/ecos/article/view/8642179. Acesso em: 29 nov. 2022.

Edição

Seção

Artigos