A construção social da doença: insights-chave e implicações para políticas de saúde
ResumoA construção social da doença é uma das principais perspectivas de pesquisa na sociologia da medicina. Este artigo traça as raízes dessa perspectiva e apresenta três descobertas construcionistas de vasta abrangência. A primeira, de que algumas doenças são particularmente permeadas por significados culturais que não derivam diretamente da natureza de uma condição de saúde, mas modelam as formas como a sociedade responde aos enfermos e influenciam a experiência dessas doenças. A segunda, de que todas as doenças são socialmente construídas no nível experiencial, com base no modo como os indivíduos passam a entendê-las e a conviver com elas. A terceira, de que o saber médico a respeito de doenças e enfermidades não é necessariamente dado por natureza, mas sim construído e desenvolvido por propostas reivindicativas e partes interessadas. Tocamos em implicações centrais para políticas de saúde a partir de cada uma dessas descobertas e discutimos diretrizes proveitosas para pesquisas relevantes a essas políticas, segundo uma tradição construcionista social. O construcionismo social fornece um importante contraponto às abordagens médicas, em grande parte deterministas, das doenças e enfermidades e pode nos ajudar a ampliar o alcance das deliberações e decisões tomadas em políticas de saúde.
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