CARNAP AND KUHN ON LINGUISTIC FRAMEWORKS AND SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS

Autores

  • Gilson Olegario Silva Departamento de Filosofia/Universidade Federal de Santa Maria

Palavras-chave:

Holism. Scientific revolutions. Incommensurability. Theory-ladenness of observations. Linguistic frameworks

Resumo

Several recent works in history and philosophy of science have re-evaluated the alleged opposition between the theses put forth by logical empiricists such as Carnap and the so-called “post-positivists”, such as Kuhn. Although the latter came to be viewed as having seriously challenged the logical positivist views of science, recent authors (e.g., Friedman, Reisch, Earman, Irzik and Grünberg) maintain that some of the most notable theses of the Kuhnian view of science have striking similarities with some aspects of Carnap’s philosophy. Against that reading, Oliveira and Psillos argue that within Carnap’s philosophy there is no place for the Kuhnian theses of incommensurability, holism, and theory-ladenness of observations. This paper presents each of those readings and argues that Carnap and Kuhn have non-opposing views on holism, incommensurability, the theory-ladenness of observations, and scientific revolutions. We note at the very end – without dwelling on the point, however – that they come apart on other matters, such as their views on metaphysics and on the context of discovery/justification distinction.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Gilson Olegario Silva, Departamento de Filosofia/Universidade Federal de Santa Maria

Possui graduação em Filosofia Licenciatura Plena pela Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (2011) e mestrado em Filosofia pelo Programa de Pós-Graduação em Filosofia da mesma universidade (PPGF-UFSM) (2013). Atualmente é doutorando pelo Programa de Pós-Graduação em Filosofia da Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Unicamp

Referências

ALLEN, S. Possible worlds in humanities, arts and sciences. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1989.

AYER, A. J. Logical Positivism. New York: The Free Press, 1959.

BRENDEL, M. “Carnap and Rationality of Theory Choice”, 2006. [Preprint] Available at: http://philsci- archive.pitt.edu/2664/1/Carnap_and_Rationality_2.pdf. Acessed on: 24 Jan. 2012.

COHEN, R. S., NEURATH, M. (eds.) Otto Neurath: Philosophical Papers. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1983.

CARNAP, R. Der Logische Aufbau der Welt. Berlin-Schlachtensee: Weltkreis Verlag, (1928). Transl. by R. A. George as The Logical Structure of The World. La Salle, Ill.: Open Court, 2003.

CARNAP, R. “Die physikalische Sprache als Universalsprache der Wissenschaft”. Erkenntnis 2, (1932a). Trans. by M. Black with author’s introduction as The Unity of Science. London: Kegan Paul, Trench Teubner & Co., 1934.

CARNAP, R. “Über Protokollsätze”. Erkenntnis 3, (1932b). Trans. by R. Creath and R. Nollan as “On Protocol Sentences”, Nous, 21, pp. 457-470, 1987.

CARNAP, R. Philosophy and Logical Syntax. London: Kegan Paul, Trench Teubner & Co., 1935.

CARNAP, R. Logische Syntax der Sprache. Wien: Verlag von Julius Springer, (1934). Transl. by A. Smeaton as Logical Syntax of Language. London: Kegan Paul, Trench Teubner & Co., 1937.

CARNAP, R. “Warheit und Bewährung”. Actes du Congrès International de Philosophie Scientifique, Sorbonne, Paris. Vol. IV Induction et Probabilité, Paris: Hermann & Cie., Éditeurs, (1936). Trans. by H. Feigl, adapted by the author, as “Truth and Confirmation”, in H. Feigl and W. Sellars (eds.), Readings in Philosophical Analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, pp. 119-127, 1949.

CARNAP, R. “Testability and Meaning”. Philosophy of Science, 1936/37.

CARNAP, R. “Logical Foundations of the Unity of Science”, in International Encyclopaedia of Unified Science, vol. I n. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press., (1938). Repr. in R. Boyd, P. Gasper & J.D. Trout (eds.), The Philosophy of Science, MIT Press, pp. 393-404, 1991.

CARNAP, R. Meaning and Necessity: a Study in Semantics and Modal Logic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1947. Repr., Midway Reprint, (1988).

CARNAP, R. “Empiricism, Semantics and Ontology”. Revue Intern. de Phil. 4, (1950). Repr. in Meaning and Necessity: a Study in Semantics and Modal Logic, Midway Reprint, pp. 205-221, 1988.

CARNAP, R. “Meaning Postulates”. Philosophical Studies 3, n. 5, pp. 65-73, 1952.

CARNAP, R. “The Methodological Character of Theoretical Concepts”. In: H. Feigl, M. Scriven (eds.) (1956), pp. 38-76.

CARNAP, R. “Intellectual Autobiography”. In: P. Schilpp (ed.) (1963), pp. 3-84, 1963a.

CARNAP, R. “Replies and Systematic Expositions”. In: P. Schilpp (ed.), (1963), pp. 859-1013, 1963b.

CARNAP, R. Philosophical Foundations of Physics: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science. Edited by Martin Gardner. New York: Basic Books, 1966.

CARNAP, R. “Theoretical Concepts in Science” (ed. by Stathis Psillos), Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, vol. 31, pp. 151-172, 2000.

COFFA, J. A. The Semantic Tradition from Kant to Carnap: to the Vienna Station. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

EARMAN, J. “Carnap, Kuhn, and the Philosophy of Scientific Methodology”. In: P. Horwich (ed.), World Changes. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, pp. 9-36, 1993.

EDWARDS, P. The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York: Macmillan. Vol.

, pp. 52-57, 1967.

FEYERABEND, P. “Explanation, Reduction, and Empiricism”. In: H.Feigl, G. Maxwell (eds.) (1962), pp. 17-36.

FEIGL, H., MAXWELL, G. Scientific Explanation, Space, and Time: Minnesota studies in the Philosophy of Science. Vol. 3. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1962.

FEIGL, H., SELLARS, W. Readings in Philosophical Analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1949.

FEIGL, H., SCRIVEN, M. The Foundations of Science and the Concepts of Psychology and Psychoanalysis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1956.

FRIEDMAN, M. Reconsidering Logical Positivism. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

FRIEDMAN, M. “Kant, Kuhn and the Rationality of Science”. In: M. Heidelberger, F. Stadler (eds.) (2002), pp. 25-43, 2002. Repr., Philosophy of Science, 69, pp. 171-190, (2002).

HARRELL, M. “Confirmation Holism and Semantic Holism”, Synthese, Vol. 109, n. 1, pp. 63-101, 1996.

HEIDELBERGER, M., STADLER, F. History of Philosophy of Science: New Trends and Perspectives. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2002.

HEMPEL, C. G. “Fundamentals of Concept Formation in Empirical Science”, International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, Vol. 2, n. 7. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952.

HEMPEL, C. G. “Implications of Carnap’s Work for the Philosophy of Science”. In: P. Schilpp (ed.) (1963), pp. 685-709.

HORWICH, P. World Changes. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1993.

HOYNINGEN-HUENE, P. “Context of Discovery and Context of Justification”. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Vol. 18, n. 4, pp. 501–515, 1987.

HOYNINGEN-HUENE, P. Reconstructing Scientific Revolutions: Thomas S. Kuhn’s philosophy of science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

HOYNINGEN-HUENE, P. “Context of discovery versus context of justification and Thomas Kuhn”. In: J. Schickore, F. Steinle (eds.) (2006), pp. 119-131.

IRZIK, G. and GRÜNBERG, T. “Carnap and Kuhn: Arch Enemies or Close Allies?”. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, vol. 46, n. 3, pp. 285-307, 1995.

IRZIK, G. “Changing Conceptions of Rationality: From Logical Empiricism to Postpositivism”. In: P. Parrini et al. (eds.) (2003), pp. 325-348.

KUHN, T. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 1st ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962. (2nd ed.:1970).

KUHN, T. “Commensurability, comparability, communicability”. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, vol. 2, pp. 669–688, 1982.

KUHN, T. “Possible worlds in history of science”. In: S. Allen (ed.) (1989), Repr. in: T. Kuhn (2000), pp. 58-89.

KUHN, T. “The Road since Structure”. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, Volume Two: Symposia and Invited Papers, pp. 3-13, 1990.

KUHN, T. “Afterwords”. In P. Horwich (ed.) (1993).

KUHN, T. “A discussion with Thomas Kuhn”. Neusis, 6: pp. 143-98, 1997. Repr. in The Road since Structure: Philosophical Essays, 1970-1993, with an Autobiographical Interview. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, (2000).

KUHN, T. The Road since Structure: Philosophical Essays, 1970-1993, with an Autobiographical Interview. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 2000.

MARTINS, R. et al., Filosofia e História da Ciência no Cone Sul: 3º Encontro. Campinas: AFHIC, 2004.

NEURATH, O. “Protokollsätze”. Erkenntnis 3 (1), (1932). Trans. as “Protocol Sentences” in Ayer 1959, and as “Protocol Statements” in Neurath, 1983.

NEURATH, O. “Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung: Der Wiener Kreis”. Vienna: Wolf, 1929; Trans. by P. Foulkes and O. Neurath as “Scientific World-Conception: The Vienna Circle”. In M. Neurath and R. S. Cohen (eds.) (1973), pp. 299-318.

NEURATH, M., R. COHEN, S. Empiricism and Sociology, Dordrecht: Reidel, 1973 OBERDAN, T. “Positivism and the Pragmatic Theory of Observation”. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, Volume One: Contributed Papers, pp. 25-37, 1990.

OLIVEIRA, J. C. P. “Carnap e o Pós-Positivismo”. Primeira Versão, n. 74, 1998.

OLIVEIRA, J. C. P. “Carnap e o Revisionismo: Alguns Aspectos Críticos”. In: R. Martins et al. (eds.) (2004).

OLIVEIRA, J. C. P. “Carnap, Kuhn, and Revisionism: on the Publication of Structure in Encyclopedia”. Journal for General Philosophy of Science, Vol. 38, n. 1, pp. 147-157, 2007.

OLIVEIRA, J. C. P. “Carnap, Revisionism and ‘Truth and Confirmation’”. Philosophy of Science Archive, 2002. Available at: http://philsciarchive.pitt.edu/645//. Acessed on: Oct 15, 2011.

OLIVEIRA, J. C. P. “Carnap, Kuhn, and revisionism (II): On ‘Structure’ and the Philosophical Change”, 2010. [Preprint] Available at: http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/5358/. Acessed on: Oct 15, 2011.

PARRINI, P. et al. Logical Empiricism. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, pp. 325-348, 2003.

PASSMORE, J. “Logical Positivism”. In: P. Edwards (ed.) (1967), vol. 5, pp. 52-57.

. “Rudolf Carnap’s ‘Theoretical Concepts in Science’”. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A, 31 (1), pp. 151- 172, 2000.

PSILLOS, S. “Carnap and Incommensurability”. Philosophical Inquiry, Vol. 30, n. 1/2, pp. 135-156, 2008.

QUINE, W. “Two Dogmas of Empiricism”. Philosophical Review, Vol. 60, n. 1, pp. 20-43, 1951.

REICHENBACH, H. Experience and Prediction: An Analysis of the Foundations and the Structure of Knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1938.

REISCH, G. “Did Kuhn Kill Logical Empiricism?”. Philosophy of Science, Vol. 58, pp. 264-277, 1991.

RICHARDSON, A. “‘That Sort of Everyday Image of Logical Positivism’: Thomas Kuhn and the Decline of Logical Empiricist Philosophy of Science”. In: A. Richardson, T. Uebel (eds.) (2007).

RICHARDSON, A., UEBEL, T. The Cambridge Companion to Logical Empiricism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

SANKEY, H. “Kuhn’s Changing Concept of Incommensurability”. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 44, pp. 759-774, 1993.

SCHICKORE, J., STEINLE, F. Revisiting Discovery and Justification: Historical and philosophical perspectives on the context distinction. Dordrecht: Springer. Vol. 14, 2006.

SCHLICK, M. “Über das Fundament der Erkenntnis”. Erkenntnis 4, 1934. Trans. as “The Foundation of Knowledge” in Ayer, 1959.

SCHILLP, P. The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap. La Salle, Ill.: Open Court, 1963.

STEIN, H. “Was Carnap entirely wrong, after all?”. Synthese 93, pp. 275- 295, 1992.

TOMIDA, Y. “Interview between W.V. Quine and Yasuhiko Tomida”. In: Y. Tomida, Quine and the Contemporary American Philosophy. Kyoto: Sekaishisosha, 1994.

UEBEL, T. “Carnap and Kuhn: On the Relation between the Logic of Science and the History of Science”. Journal for General Philosophy of Science, Vol. 42, n. 1, pp. 129-140, 2011.

Downloads

Publicado

2015-11-29

Como Citar

SILVA, G. O. CARNAP AND KUHN ON LINGUISTIC FRAMEWORKS AND SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS. Manuscrito: Revista Internacional de Filosofia, Campinas, SP, v. 36, n. 1, p. 139–190, 2015. Disponível em: https://periodicos.sbu.unicamp.br/ojs/index.php/manuscrito/article/view/8641983. Acesso em: 9 dez. 2022.

Edição

Seção

Artigos