Banner Portal
Challenging the Grounding Objection to Presentism


Presentism. Grounding objection. Truthmaker principle. Ontology of time.

Como Citar

INGTHORSSON, R. Challenging the Grounding Objection to Presentism. Manuscrito: Revista Internacional de Filosofia, Campinas, SP, v. 40, n. 1, p. 87–107, 2017. Disponível em: Acesso em: 30 maio. 2023.


The grounding objection to presentism rests on two premises: (i) every true proposition P has a truthmaker T, and (ii) some claims about the future and past are obviously true. However, if the future and past do not exist, there can be no truthmakers for future and past tensed expressions. Presentists tend not to challenge the premises of the objection. Instead they argue that the present contains all the truthmakers we need. Presentists should challenge the premises instead. First, finding truthmakers in the present only results in the postulation of implausible and/or ethereal entities that ultimately fail to solve the grounding objection. Second, no manifestly absurd consequences follow from accepting the lack of truth-values for tensed expressions. Third, the grounding objection does not just require the assumption that for every truth there is a truthmaker, but also that for every truthmaker there is a truth. I show how one can deny the latter without denying the former.


Armstrong, D. A World of States of Affairs, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Armstrong, D. Truth and Truthmakers, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Bigelow, J. The Reality of Numbers, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Bigelow, J. “Presentism and Properties”, Noûs 30, Supplement: Philosophical Perspectives 10, Metaphysics: 35–52, 1996.

Bourne, Cr. A Future for Presentism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Broad, C. D. Scientific Thought. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd., 1923.

Cameron, Ross. The Moving Spotlight: An Essay On Time and Ontology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Craig, W. L. The Tensed Theory of Time: A Critical Examination. Synthese Library: Studies in Epistemology, Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, vol. 293. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.

Crisp, T. M. “Presentism and the Grounding Objection”, Noûs 41: 90– 109, 2007.

Dummett, Michael. “A Defense of McTaggart”s Proof of the Unreality of Time”, Philosophical Review 69: 497–504, 1960.

Ingthorsson, R. D. “Truthmakers without Truth”, Metaphysica 7(2): 53– 71, 2006.

Kierland, B. “Grounding Past Truths: Overcoming the Challenge”. In New Papers on the Present — Focus on Presentism, edited by R. Ciuni, K.Miller & G. Torrengo. Philosophia Verlag, 173–209, 2013.

Ludlow, P. Semantics, Tense and Time, An Essay in the Metaphysics of Natural Language. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1999.

Mozersky, J. M. Time, Language, and Ontology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Prior, A. N. Changes in Events and Changes in Things. Lawrence, Kan.: University of Kansas Press, 1962. Read, S. “Truthmakers and the Disjunction Thesis”, Mind, 109: 67–79, 2000.

Sider, T. Four-Dimensionalism: An Ontology of Persistence and Time. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Smith, Nicholas J. J. 2011. “Inconsistency in the A–Theory”, Philosophical Studies 156: 231–47, 2011.

Wüthrich, C. “Demarkating Presentism”, In H. de Regt, S. Okasha & S. Hartmann (eds.), EPSA Philosophy of Science: Amsterdam 2009. Springer, pp. 441–50, 2012.


Não há dados estatísticos.