ResumoClosed time is possible in several senses of ‘possible’. One might like to know, therefore, whether closed time is possible in the sense that it is compatible with standard metaphysical theories of time. In this paper I am concerned with whether closed time is compatible with A and/or B theories of time. A common enough view amongst philosophers is that B theories do but A theories do not allow closed time. However, I show that prima-facie neither approach allows closed time, but that with a little work standard versions of both approaches do. This shows that there’s no special problem with the notion of eternal return.
AUGUSTINE  The City of God. Translation by Marcus Dods. New York: The Modern Library, Random House, 1950.
ARTHUR, R. “Minkowski Spacetime and the Dimensions of the Present” in The Ontology of Spacetime, Vol. 1, ed. Dieks, D. (ed.), 129-155. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006.
BIGELOW, J. “Presentism and Properties” Philosophical Perspectives 10: 35– 52, 1996.
BIGELOW, J. (2001) “Time Travel Fiction”, in Reality and Humean Supervenience: Essays on the Philosophy of David Lewis, ed. G. Preyer and F. Siebelt, 58-91. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001.
COOPE, U. “Time for Aristotle: Physics IV.10–14”. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
DAINTON, B. Time and Space. McGill: Queens University Press, 2001.
DOWE, P. “Every Now and Then: A-theory and Loops in Time” Journal of Philosophy 106:641-665, 2009.
GÖDEL, K. “An Example of a New Type of Cosmological Solution to Einstein’s Field Equations of Gravitation” Reviews of Modern Physics 21:447-450, 1949a.
GÖDEL, K. “A Remark About the Relationship Between Relativity Theory and Idealistic Philosophy” in Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, ed. P. Schilpp, 557–562. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1949b.
ILLE, P. and RUET, P. “Cyclic Extensions of Order Varieties” Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science 212: 119–132, 2008.
KELLER, S. and NELSON, M. “Presentists Should Believe in Time Travel” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 79:333–345, 2001.
MCTAGGART, J. “The Unreality of Time” Mind 18: 457–475, 1908.
NEWTON-SMITH, W. The Structure of Time. London: Routledge, 1980.
PUTNAM, H. “Time and Physical Geometry” Journal of Philosophy 64: 240– 247, 1967.
RICHMOND, A. “Review: Time Travel” Philosophical Books 44: 297-309, 2003.
VAN FRAASSEN, B. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Time and Space. New York: Random Press, 1970.
SAVITT, S. “Time Travel and Becoming” The Monist 88: 413-22, 2005.
STEIN, H. “On Einstein-Minkowski Space-Time” Journal of Philosophy 65:523, 1968.
WHITE, M. “Stoic Natural Philosophy” in The Cambridge Companion to the Stoics, ed. Inwood, B., 124–152. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
ZIMMERMAN, D. “Presentism and the Space-Time Manifold” in The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time, ed. C. Callender, 163–244. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.