The temporal epistemic anomaly
Palavras-chave:Temporal anomaly, Causal loop, Non-invented information, Backwards causation, Time travel.
It is not uncommon in time travel stories to find that the mechanism by which the time travel is achieved is not invented. A time traveller could journey to his/her own past and give the designs of the time travel machine to his/her earlier self as s/he was given the designs as a younger person. These designs never get thought up by anyone. Such a situation would conflict with the usual conception of the acquisition of knowledge. This situation is called the Temporal Epistemic Anomaly and would arise if knowledge is gained at a time prior to the information in question being transmitted but is not discovered or invented at any time. This article examines the implications of information propagating around a causal chain that is closed in time (which is required to create the Anomaly) and whether this information need have a specific origin point.
ALBERT, D. Z. Time and Chance. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 2000.
AL-KHALILI, J. Black Holes, Wormholes & Time Machines (2nd edn). London: Taylor and Francis, 2016.
BARKER, S. F. The Elements of Logic (2nd edn). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974.
BERKOVITZ, J. “On Time, Causation and Explanation in the Causally Symmetric Bohmian Model of Quantum Mechanics”. In Bouton, C. and Huneman, P. (eds), Nature of Time and the Time of Nature: Philosophical Perspectives of Time in Natural Sciences. Cham: Springer, 2017.
CALLENDER, C. “The Past Hypothesis Meets Gravity”. In Ernst, G. and Hüttemann, A. (eds), Time, Chance, and Reduction: Philosophical Aspects of Statistical Mechanics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
CLEGG, B. Build Your Own Time Machine: The Real Science of Time Travel. London: Duckworth Overlook, 2011.
DAINTON, B. Time and Space (2nd edn). Durham, U.K.: Acumen, 2010.
DAVIES, P. How to Build a Time Machine. London: Penguin Books, 2001.
DEUTSCH, D. and LOCKWOOD, M. “The Quantum Physics of Time Travel”. Scientific American (March issue), pp. 69-74, 1994.
DUGDALE, J. S. Entropy and its Physical Meaning. London: Taylor and Francis, 1996.
EARMAN, J. Bangs, Crunches, Whimpers, and Shrieks: Singularities and Acausalities in Relativistic Spacetimes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
EARMAN, J., SMEENK, C. and WÜTHRICH, C. “Do the Laws of Physics Forbid the Operation of Time Machines?”. Synthese, 169, pp. 91–124, 2009.
FLORIDI, L. Information The Philosophy of. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
FRIEDMAN, J., MORRIS, M. S., NOVIKOV, I. D., ECHEVERRIA, F., ECHEVERRIA, G., THORNE, K. S. and YURTSEVER, U. “Cauchy Problem in Spacetimes with Closed Timelike Curves”. Physical Review D, 42, pp. 1915–1930, 1990.
GREENE, B. The Fabric of the Cosmos: Space, Time and the Texture of Reality. London: Penguin Books, 2004.
GOTT III, J.R. “Closed Timelike Curves Produced by Pairs of Moving Cosmic Strings: Exact Solutions”. Physical Review Letters, 66, pp. 1126–1129, 1991.
GOTT III, J.R. Time Travel in Einstein's Universe: The Physical Possibilities of Travel Through Time. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2001.
HANLEY, R. “No End in Sight: Causal Loops in Philosophy, Physics and Fiction”. Synthese, 141, pp. 123–152, 2004.
HORWICH, P. Asymmetries in Time. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987.
ISMAEL, J. “Closed Causal Loops and the Bilking Argument”. Synthese, 136, pp. 305–320, 2003.
KAKU, M. Parallel Worlds: A Journey Through Creation, Higher Dimensions, and the Future of the Cosmos. New York: Doubleday Press, 2005.
KAKU, M. Physics of the Impossible. London: Penguin Books, 2009.
KARNANI, M., PÄÄKKÖNEN, K. and ANNILA, A. “The Physical Character of Information”. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical & Engineering Sciences, 465, pp. 2155–2175, 2009.
KUTACH, D. “Time Travel and Consistency Constraints”. Philosophy of Science, 70, pp. 1098–1113, 2003.
KUTACH, D. “Time Travel and Time Machines”. In A. Bardon and H. Dyke (eds), A Companion to the Philosophy of Time. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013.
LANDAUER, R. “The Physical Nature of Information”. Physics Letters A, 217, p. 188, 1996.
LEWIS, D. “The Paradoxes of Time Travel”. American Philosophical Quarterly, 13, pp. 145–152, 1976.
LINDLEY, D. “Time Travel without Regrets”. Physical Review Focus, 27 (5), 2011. Available at: http://physics.aps.org/story/v27/st5.
LOBO, F. and CRAWFORD, P. “Time, Closed Timelike Curves and Causality”. In Buccheri, R., Saniga, M. and Stuckey, M. (eds), The Nature of Time: Geometry, Physics and Perception. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 2003.
LOCKWOOD, M. The Labyrinth of Time: Introducing the Universe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
LOMBARDI, O. “What is Information?”. Foundations of Science, 91, pp. 105–134, 2004.
LOSSEV, A. and NOVIKOV, I. D. “The Jinn of the Time Machine: Non-trivial Self-Consistent Solutions”. Classical and Quantum Gravity, 9, pp. 2309–2321, 1992.
MALLETT, R. L. “The Gravitational Field of a Circulating Light Beam”. Foundations of Physics, 33, pp. 1307– 1314, 2003.
MALLETT, R. L. and HENDERSON, B. Time Traveller: A Scientist's Personal Mission to Make Time Travel a Reality. London: Penguin Books, 2008.
MEYER, U. “Explaining Causal Loops”. Analysis, 72, pp. 259–264, 2012.
MINGERS, J. and STANDING, C. “What is information? Toward a theory of information as objective and veridical”. Journal of Information Technology 33, pp. 85–104, 2018.
MONTON, B. “Time Travel Without Causal Loops”. The Philosophical Quarterly, 59, pp. 54–67, 2009.
MORRIS, R. Time's Arrows: Scientific Attitudes Towards Time. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1985.
MORRIS, R., THORNE, K.S. and YURTSEVER, U. “Wormholes, Time Machines, and the Weak Energy Condition”. Physical Review Letters, 61, pp. 1446–1449, 1988.
NAHIN, P. Time Machine Tales: The Science Fiction Adventures and Philosophical Puzzles of Time Travel. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2017.
NIKOLIĆ, H. “Causal Paradoxes: A Conflict Between Relativity and the Arrow of Time”, Foundations of Physics Letters 19, pp. 259-267, 2006.
PATEL, V. M. and LINEWEAVER, C. H. “Solutions to the Cosmic Initial Entropy Problem without Equilibrium Initial Conditions”, Entropy 19, pp. 411-1–411-9, 2017.
POPOVIC, M. “The Second Law of Thermodynamics Forbids Time Travel”. Cosmology, 18, pp. 212–222, 2014.
REICHENBACH, H. The Direction of Time (ed. M. Reichenbach). Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1956.
REIF, F. Fundamentals of Thermal and Statistical Physics. Tokyo: McGraw-Hill- Kosahusha, 1981.
RIGGS, P. J. “A Critique of Mellor’s Argument Against 'Backwards' Causation”. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 41, pp. 75–86, 1991.
RIGGS, P. J. “The Principal Paradox of Time Travel”. Ratio, 10, pp. 48–64, 1997.
RIGGS, P. J. “The Physical State of the Universe in the Planck Era”. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung A: Journal of Physical Sciences, 73, pp. 533–537, 2018.
RALPH, T.C. and DOWNES, T.G. “Relativistic Quantum Information and Time Machines”. Contemporary Physics, 53 (1), pp. 1–16, 2012.
SMEENK, C. and WÜTTRICH, C. “Time Travel and Time Machines”. In C. Callender (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
SMITH, N. J. J. “Bananas Enough for Time Travel?”. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 48, pp. 363–389, 1997.
STOWE, K. An Introduction to Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics (2nd edn). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
TAYLOR, E.R. “The Thermodynamics of Time Travel”, Universal Journal of Chemistry (2), pp. 60–64, 2015.
THORNE, K. S. Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy. New York: W. W. Norton, 1994.
TIPPETT, B.K. and TSANG, D. “Traversable Acausal Retrograde Domains in Spacetime”. Classical and Quantum Gravity, 34, pp. 095006-1–095006-12, 2017.
TOOMEY, D. The New Time Travelers: A Journey to the Frontiers of Physics. New York: W.W. Norton, 2007.
VISSER, M. Lorentzian Wormholes: From Einstein to Hawking. New York: Springer, 1996.
WASSERMAN, R. The Paradoxes of Time Travel. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.
WEINERT, F. The March of Time: Evolving Conceptions of Time in the Light of Scientific Discoveries. Berlin: Springer, 2013.
YUAN, X., ASSAD, S.M., THOMPSON, J., HAW, J.Y., VEDRAL, V., RALPH, T.C., LAM, P.K., WEEDBROOK, C. and GU, M. “Replicating the benefits of Deutschian closed timelike curves without breaking causality”. NPJ Quantum Information, 2015. Available at: http://www.nature.com/articles/npjqi20157
ZEMANSKY, M.W. and DITTMAN, R.H. Heat and Thermodynamics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.
ZINS, C. “Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge”. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58, pp. 479–493, 2007.