Cidadãos e deliberação coletiva nas ciências sociais

Autores

Palavras-chave:

Ciência cidadão, Divisão de trabalho, Deliberação coletiva, Virtude intelectual, Diversidade cognitiva, Ideologia

Resumo

Argumenta-se que, em certas condições particulares relacionadas ao caráter intelectual dos deliberadores e sua diversidade cognitiva, pequenas equipes de pesquisa que se engajam na deliberação na análise de dados e envolvem cidadãos podem promover melhores resultados epistêmicos do que aquelas equipes que não envolvem cidadãos. Em particular, argumenta-se que certas comunidades dentro das ciências sociais que carecem da diversidade cognitiva relevante entre seus profissionais podem aproveitar a diversidade encontrada na cidadania para aumentar a qualidade epistêmica de suas pesquisas, desde que os cidadãos possuam as virtudes relevantes. .

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Leandro de Brasi, King´s College London

Department of Philosophy the King´s College London, London, UK.

Referências

ALEXANDER, J., HIMMELREICH J., THOMPSON, C. “Epistemic landscapes, optimal search and the division of cognitive labor.” Philosophy of Science, 82(3), pp.424-453, 2015.

ATHANASSOULIS, N. “The Psychology of Virtue Education.” In Masala, A. and Webber, J. (eds.) (2016), pp.207-228.

BACON, F. The New Organon. Edited by Lisa Jardine and Michael Silverthorne. Cambridge: CUP, 1620 (2002).

BAEHR, J. Cultivating Good Minds: A Philosophical and Practical Guide to Educating for Intellectual Virtues. (MS) Accessed 17/April/2020 http://intellectualvirtues.org/whyshould-we-educate-for-intellectual-virtues-2-2/, 2015.

BAEHR, J. Intellectual Virtues and Education. London: Routledge, 2016. BAEHR, J. “Intellectual Virtues, Critical Thinking and the Aims of Education.” In Fricker, M. et al. (eds.) (2020), pp.447-56.

BATTALY, H. “Acquiring Epistemic Virtue: Emotions, Situations and Education.” In Fairweather, A. and Flanagan, O. (eds.) (2014), pp.175-196.

BATTALY, H. Virtue. London: Polity, 2015. BATTALY, H. The Routledge Handbook of Virtue Epistemology. London: Routledge, 2019.

BENJAMIN, L., SIMPSON, J. “The Power of the Situation.” American Psychological Association, 64, pp.12- 9, 2009. BONNEY, R. “Citizen Science: A Lab Tradition.” Living Birds, 15(4), pp.7–15, 1996.

BOYER-KASSEM, T., MAYO-WILSON, C., WEISBERG, M. Scientific Collaboration and Collective Knowledge. Oxford: OUP, 2018.

CHAN, M., JONES, C., JAMIESON, K., ALBARRACÍN, D. “Debunking: A Meta-Analysis of the Psychological Efficacy of Messages Countering Misinformation.” Psychological Science, 28(11), pp.1531-46, 2017.

CHONG, D. “Degrees of Rationality in Politics.” In Huddy, L. et al. (eds.) (2013), pp.96-129.

CHURCH, I., SAMUELSON, P. Intellectual Humility. London: Bloomsbury, 2017.

CODE, L. What can she Know? Ithaca: CUP, 1991.

CRISP, R., TURNER, R. “Cognitive Adaptation to the Experience of Social and Cultural Diversity.” Psychological Bulletin, 137(2), pp.242-66, 2011.

DEA, S., SILK, M. “Sympathetic Knowledge and the Scientific Attitude.” In Fricker, M. et al. (eds.) (2020), pp.344-53.

DE BRASI, L. “Reliability and Social Knowledge-Relevant Responsibility,” Transformaçao, 38(1), pp. 187-212, 2015.

_____. “Citizenry Incompetence and the Epistemic Structure of Society”, Filosofía Unisinos, 19(3), pp. 201- 12, 2018.

DE REGT, H., LEONELLI, S., EIGNER, K. Scientific Understanding: Philosophical Perspectives. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2009.

DE RIDDER, J. “How Many Scientists Does It Take to Have Knowledge?” In McCain, K. and Kampourakis, K. (eds.) (2020), pp.3-17.

DORIS, J. Lack of character: Personality and Moral Behavior. Cambridge: CUP, 2002.

DOUGLAS, H. Science, Policy, and the Value-Free Ideal. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2009.

DUARTE, J., CRAWFORD, J., STERN, C., HAIDT, J., JUSSIM, L., TETLOCK, P. “Political diversity will improve social psychological science.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 38, E130, 2015.

DUNNING, D. “Gullible to Ourselves.” In Forgas, J. and Baumeister, R. (eds) (2019), pp.217-33. EAGLESTON, T. Ideology: An Introduction. London: Verso, 1991.

EDWARDS, K., SMITH, E. “A Disconfirmation Bias in the Evaluation of Arguments.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(1), pp.5-24, 1996.

ELLIOTT, K., ROSENBERG, J. “Philosophical Foundations for Citizen Science.” Citizen Science, 4(1), pp.1-9, 2019.

ELSTER, J. Deliberative Democracy. Cambridge: CUP, 1998. EVANS, J. “Belief Bias in Deductive Reasoning.” In Pohl, R. (eds.) (2017), pp.165-181.

EYAL, G. The Crisis of Expertise. London: Polity, 2019. FAIRWEATHER, A., ALFANO, M. Epistemic Situationism. Oxford: OUP, 2017.

FAIRWEATHER, A., FLANAGAN, O. Naturalizing Epistemic Virtue. Cambridge: CUP, 2014.

FEARON, J. “Deliberation as Discussion.” In Elster, J. (eds.) (1998), pp.44-68. FISHKIN, J. When the People Speak. Oxford: OUP, 2011.

FLEESON, W. “Moving personality beyond the personsituation debate: The challenge and opportunity of within-person variability.” Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, pp.83-7, 2004.

FLEESON, W., NOFTLE, E. “The end of the personsituation debate: An emerging synthesis in the answer to the consistency question.” Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, pp.1667-84, 2008.

FORGAS, J., BAUMEISTER, R. The Social Psychology of Gullibility. London: Routledge, 2019.

FRICKER, E. “Testimony and Epistemic Autonomy.” In Lackey, J. and Sosa, E. (eds.) (2006), pp.225-250.

FRICKER, M., GRAHAM, P., HENDERSON, D., PEDERSEN, N. Routledge Handbook of Social Epistemology. London: Routledge, 2020.

FUNDER, D. “Towards a resolution of the personality triad: Persons, situations, and behaviors.” Journal of Research in Personality, 40, pp.21-34, 2006.

GAUKROGER, S. Knowledge in Modern Philosophy. London: Bloomsbury, 2019.

GERRING, J., CHRISTENSON, D. Applied Social Science Methodology. Cambridge: CUP, 2017.

GOLD, M., OCHU, E. “Creative collaboration in citizen science and the evolution of ThinkCamps.” In Hecker, S. et al. (eds.) (2018), pp.124-45.

GORMAN, S., GORMAN, J. Denying to the Grave. Oxford: OUP, 2017. GRASSWICK, H. “Epistemic Autonomy in a Social World of Knowing.” In Battaly, H. (eds. (2019), pp.196-208.

GREEN, A. The Social Contexts of Intellectual Virtue: Knowledge as a Team Achievement. London: Routledge, 2017.

GROSS, N. Why Are Professors Liberal and Why Do Conservatives Care? Massachusetts: HUP, 2013.

HARMAN, G. “The nonexistence of character traits.” Proceedings Aristotelian Society, 100, pp.223-6, 2000.

HECKER, S., HAKLAY, M., BOWSER, A., MAKUCH, Z., VOGEL, J., BONN, A. Citizen Science. London: UCL Press, 2018.

HERTWIG, R., GRÜNE-YANOFF, T. “Nudging and Boosting.” Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12(6), pp.973-86, 2017.

HESS, D., MCAVOY, P. The Political Classroom: Evidence and Ethics in Democratic Education. London: Routledge, 2015.

HICKS, D. “Is Longino’s Conception of Objectivity Feminist?” Hypatia, 26(2), pp.333-51, 2011.

HONG, L., PAGE, S. “Groups of Diverse Problem Solvers Can Outperform Groups of High-Ability Problem Solvers.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 101(46), pp.16385-89, 2004.

HOYLE, R., DAVISSON, E., DIEBELS, K., LEARY, M. “Holding specific views with humility: Conceptualization and measurement of specific intellectual humility”. Personality and Individual Differences, 97, pp.165-72, 2016.

HUDDY, L., SEARS, D., LEVY, J. Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology. Oxford: OUP, 2013.

INBAR, Y., LAMMERS, J. “Political diversity in social and personality psychology.” Perspectives in Psychological Science, 7(5), pp.496–503, 2012.

IRWIN, A. Citizen Science: A Study of People, Expertise and Sustainable Development. London: Routledge, 1995.

ISENBERG, D. “Group Polarization: A critical review and meta-analysis.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, pp.1141-51, 1986.

JOST, J. “Ideological Asymmetries and the Essence of Political Psychology.” Political Psychology, 38(2), pp.167- 208, 2017.

JOST, J., KRUGLANSKI, A. “The estrangement of social constructionism and experimental social psychology.” Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6, pp.168-87, 2002.

JUSSIM, L., STEVENS, S., HONEYCUTT, N., ANGLIN, S., FOX, N. “Scientific Gullibility.” In Forgas, J. and Baumeister, R. (eds) (2019), pp.279-303.

KAHAN, D. “The Politically Motivated Reasoning Paradigm, Part1.” In Scott, R. and Kosslyn, S. (eds.) (2016), pp.1-16.

KELLEY, L., BLASHFIELD, R. “An Example of Psychological Science’s Failure to Self-Correct.” Review of General Psychology, 13(2), pp.122-129, 2009.

KIDD, I. “Pierre Duhem’s epistemic claims and the intellectual virtue of humility.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 42(1), pp.185-189, 2011. KIDD, I. “Educating for Intellectual Humility.” In Baehr, J. (eds.) (2016), pp.54-70.

KITCHER, P. The Advancement of Science: Science without Legend, Objectivity without Illusions. Oxford: OUP, 1993.

KITCHER, P. Science in a Democratic Society. New York: Prometheus, 2011.

KLEIN, D., STERN, C. “By the Numbers: The Ideological Profile of Professors.” In Maranto, R. et al. (eds.) (2009a), pp.15–38.

KLEIN, D., STERN, C. “Groupthink in Academia: Majoritarian Departmental Politics and the Professional Pyramid.” In Maranto, R. et al. (eds.) (2009b), pp.79-98.

KOEHLER, J. “The Influence of Prior Beliefs on Scientific Judgments of Evidence Quality.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 56, pp.28-55, 1993.

KOERTGE, N. Scientific Values and Civic Virtues. Oxford: OUP, 2005.

KUHN, T. The Essential Tension: Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977.

KULLENBERG, C., KASPEROWSKI, D. “What Is Citizen Science?–A Scientometric Meta-Analysis.” PLoS ONE, 11(1), e0147152, 2016.

LACKEY, J., SOSA, E. The Epistemology of Testimony. Oxford: OUP, 2006.

LANGBERT, M., QUAIN, A., KLEIN, D. “Faculty Voter Registration in Economics, History, Journalism, Law and Psychology.” Econ Journal Watch, 13(3), pp.422- 451, 2016.

LARSON, J. In Search of Synergy in Small Group Performance. New York: Psychology Press, 2010.

LEVENDUSKY, M., DRUCKMAN, J., MCLAIN, A. “How Group Discussions Create Strong Attitudes and Strong Partisans.” Research and Politics, 3, pp.1-6, 2016.

LILIENFELD, S. “Can psychology become a science?” Personality and Individual Differences, 49, pp.281-88, 2010.

LLOYD, E. The case of the female orgasm. Massachusetts: HUP, 2005.

LIPPERT-RASMUSSEN, K., BROWNLEE, K., COADY, D. A Companion to Applied Philosophy. Oxford: WileyBlackwell, 2017.

LODGE, M., TABER, C. The Rationalizing Voter. Cambridge: CUP, 2013.

LONGINO, H. Science as Social Knowledge: Values and Objectivity in Scientific Inquiry. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.

LONGINO, H. The Fate of Knowledge. Princeton: PUP, 2002. LUSKIN, R., O´FLYNN, I., FISHKIN, J., RUSSELL, D. “Deliberating Across Deep Divides.” Political Studies, 62(1), pp.116-35, 2014.

MADVA, A. “The Inevitability of Aiming for Virtue.” In Sherman, B. and Goguen, S. (eds.) (2019), pp.85-99.

MARANTO, R., REDDING, R., HESS, F. The politically correct university: Problems, scope and reforms. Washington: AEI Press, 2009. MASALA, A., WEBBER, J. From Personality to Virtue. Oxford: OUP, 2016.

MAYO, R. “The Skeptical (Ungullible) Mindset.” In Forgas, J. and Baumeister, R. (eds) (2019), pp.140-58. MCCAIN, K., KAMPOURAKIS, K. What is Scientific Knowledge? London: Routledge, 2020. MCINTYRE, L. The Scientific Attitude. Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2019. MCWILLIAMS, E. “Can Epistemic Virtue Help Combat Epistemologies of Ignorance?” In Sherman, B. and Goguen, S. (eds.) (2019), pp.101-18. MERCIER, H. “Confirmation bias-myside bias.” In Pohl, R. (eds.) (2017), pp.99-114. MERCIER, H., HEINTZ, C. “Scientists’ Argumentative Reasoning.” Topoi, 33, pp.513-524, 2014. MERCIER, H., SPERBER, D. The Enigma of Reason. London: Allen Lane, 2017. MERTON, R. The Sociology of Science. Chicago: UCP, 1973. MOSHMAN, D., GEIL, M. “Collaborative Reasoning: Evidence for Collective Rationality.” Thinking & Reasoning, 4(3), pp.231-48, 1998. MYERS, D. 2019. “Psychological Science Meets a Gullible Post-Truth World.” In Forgas, J. and Baumeister, R. (eds) (2019), pp.77-100. MULDOON, R. “Diversity, Rationality and the Division of Cognitive Labor.” In Boyer-Kassem, T. et al. (eds.) (2018), pp.78-94. NICHOLS, T. The Death of Expertise. Oxford: OUP, 2017. NICKERSON, R. “Confirmation Bias: A ubiquitous phenomena in many guises.” Review of General Psychology, 2(2), pp.175-220, 1998.

NOVAK, J., BECKER, M., GREY, F., MONDARDINI, R. “Citizen Engagement and Collective Intelligence for Participatory Digital Social Innovation.” In Hecker, S. et al. (eds.) (2018), pp.124-45. NYHAN, B., REIFLER, J. “When Corrections Fail.” Political Behaviour, 32, pp.303-30, 2010. PALUCK, E., GREEN, D. “Deference, Dissent and Dispute Resolution.” American Political Science Review, 103, pp.622-44, 2009. PATERNOTTE, C., IVANOVA, M. “Virtues and Vices in Scientific Inquiry.” Synthese, 194, pp.1787-807, 2017. PELTONENE, M. The Cambridge Companion to Bacon. Cambridge: CUP, 1996. PETERSON, E. 2020. “Can Scientific Knowledge Sift the Wheat from the Tares?: A Brief History of Bias (and Fears about Bias) in Science.” In McCain, K. and Kampourakis, K. (eds.) (2020), pp.195-211. PIGDEN, C. “Are Conspiracy Theorists Epistemically Vicious?. In Lippert-Rasmussen, K. et al. (eds.) (2017), pp.120-132. POHL, R. Cognitive Illusions. London: Routledge, 2017. POTOCHNIK, A., COLOMBO, M., WRIGHT, C. Recipes for Science. London: Routledge, 2018. PRONIN, E., GILOVICH, T., ROSS, L. “Objectivity in the eye of the beholder.” Psychological Review, 111, pp.781- 799, 2004. REDDING, R. “Sociopolitical Diversity in Psychology.” American Psychologist, 56(3), pp.205-215, 2001. REDLAWSK, D., CIVETTINI, A., EMMERSON, K. “The Affective Tipping Point: Do Motivated Reasoners Ever “Get It”?” Political Psychology, 31(4), pp.563-93, 2010.

REISCH, H., POTTER, C. “Citizen Science as seen by scientists.” Public Understanding of Science, 23(1), pp.107- 120, 2014. ROBERTS, R., WOOD, J. Intellectual Virtues. Oxford:OUP, 2007. ROLIN, K. “Diversity and Dissent in the Social Sciences.” Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 41(4), pp.470-494, 2011. ROSS, L., LEPPER, M., HUBBARD, M. “Perseverance in self-perception and social perception.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32(5), pp.880-92, 1975. ROSSI, P. “Bacon’s idea of science.” In Peltonene, M. (ed.) (1996), pp.25-46. SARGENT, R. 1996. “Bacon as an advocate for cooperative scientific research.” In Peltonene, M. (ed.) (1996), pp.146-171. SARGENT, R. “Virtues and the Scientific Revolution.” In Koertge, N. (ed.) (2005), pp.71-79. SAWYER, K. Group Genius: The Creative Power of Collaboration. New York: Basic Books, 2017. SCHINDLER, S. Theoretical Virtues in Science. Cambridge: CUP, 2018. SCOTT, R., KOSSLYN, S. Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Hoboken: Wiley, 2016. SHARPE, M. “Bacon.” In Gaukroger, S. (ed.) (2019), pp.7- 26. SHERMAN, B., GOGUEN, S. Overcoming Epistemic Injustice. London: Rowan&Littlefield, 2019.

SIEGEL, H. Education´s Epistemology. Oxford: OUP, 2017.

SIMMONS, J., NELSON, L., SIMONSOHN, U. “FalsePositive Psychology: Undisclosed Flexibility in Data Collection and Analysis Allows Presenting Anything as Significant.” Psychological Science, 22(11), pp.1359-66, 2011.

SOLOMON, M. Social Empiricism. Massachusetts: MIT Pres, 2001.

STREVENS, M. “The Role of the Priority Rule in Science.” Journal of Philosophy, 100, pp.55-79, 2003.

SUNSTEIN, C. Infotopia. Oxford: OUP, 2006.

TETLOCK, P. “Cognitive style and political ideology.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, pp.118–26, 1983.

TETLOCK, P. “Political Psychology or Politicized Psychology.” Political Psychology, 15(3), pp.509-29, 1994.

THOMA, J. “The epistemic division of labour revisited.” Philosophy of Science, 82(3), pp.454-72, 2015.

THOMPSON, A. “Does Diversity Trump Ability? An example of the misuse of mathematics in the social sciences.” Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 61, pp.1024-30, 2014.

TOLLEFSEN, D. “Group Deliberation, Social Cohesion and Scientific Teamwork.” Episteme, 3(1-2), pp.37-51, 2006.

TRIVERS, R. The Folly of Fools. New York: Ingram, 2011. VAN DE WERFHORST, H. “Are universities left-wing bastions? The political orientation of professors, professionals, and managers in Europe.” British Journal of Sociology, 71(1), pp.47-73, 202.

VAN DONGEN, J., PAUL, H. Epistemic Virtues in the Sciences and the Humanities. Dordrecht: Springer, 2017.

WAGENKNECHT, S. A Social Epistemology of Research Groups. Dordrecht: Springer, 2017.

WEISBERG, M., MULDOON, R. “Epistemic landscapes and the division of cognitive labour.” Philosophy of Science, 76(2), pp.225-52, 2009.

WEYMARK, J. “Cognitive Diversity, Binary Decisions and Epistemic Democracy.” Episteme, 12, pp.497-511, 2015.

WICHERTS, J., VELDKAMP, C., AUGUSTEIJN, H., BAKKER, M., VAN AERT, R., VAN ASSEN, M. “Degrees of Freedom in Planning, Running, Analyzing and Reporting Psychological Studies.” Frontiers in Psychology, 7, pp.1-12, 2016.

WHITCOMB, D., BATTALY, H., BAEHR, J., HOWARDS-SNYDER, D. “Intellectual Humility: Owning our limitations.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 94(3), pp.509-39, 2017.

WOOD, T., PORTER, E. “The Elusive Backfire Effect: Mass Attitudes’ Steadfast Factual Adherence.” Political Behaviour, 41, pp.135-63, 2019.

WRAY, B. “Collaborative Research, Deliberation and Innovation.” Episteme, 11(3), pp.291-303, 2014.

ZHANG, L., STERNBERG, R., RAYNER, S. Handbook of Intellectual Styles: Preferences in Cognition, Learning and Thinking. Dordrecht: Springer, 2012.

ZOLLMAN, K. “The Epistemic benefits of Transient Diversity.” Erkenntnis, 72(1), pp.17-35, 2010.

Downloads

Publicado

2021-02-09

Como Citar

BRASI, L. de. Cidadãos e deliberação coletiva nas ciências sociais. Manuscrito: Revista Internacional de Filosofia, Campinas, SP, v. 43, n. 3, p. 72–113, 2021. Disponível em: https://periodicos.sbu.unicamp.br/ojs/index.php/manuscrito/article/view/8664309. Acesso em: 4 out. 2022.

Edição

Seção

Artigos