Uma tipologia do recrutamento partidário

Autores

  • Paulo Peres Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
  • Amanda Machado Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

Palavras-chave:

Recrutamento partidário. Recrutamento político. Tipologia do recrutamento partidário. Filiação partidária. Elites partidárias.

Resumo

O recrutamento de lideranças políticas é uma das funções mais relevantes desempenhadas pelos partidos nas democracias contemporâneas. Porém, a literatura especializada costuma analisar apenas alguns aspectos relacionados à etapa final desse processo, como a seleção de candidatos, o perfil socioeconômico de lideranças já eleitas e as carreiras dos políticos, negligenciando as estratégias e modalidades de atração e formação de novos quadros empregadas pelas organizações partidárias. Consequentemente, até o momento, não foram desenvolvidos modelos heurísticos que permitam observar e analisar o recrutamento em seus diversos momentos. Nosso objetivo neste artigo é propor uma tipologia para o estudo do recrutamento partidário em todas as suas etapas. Para tanto, apresentamos uma definição conceitual que considera o recrutamento partidário como um processo abrangente que envolve três aspectos: (1) a atração de filiados para a organização; (2) a formação/treinamento dos futuros quadros; e (3) sua posterior alocação em postos na burocracia do partido ou nos governos e/ou sua seleção como candidato a cargos representativos, com o eventual exercício de algum mandato. Baseados nessa definição, propomos um modelo de análise que enquadra o recrutamento partidário de acordo com seus tipos, subtipos, formas, meios, modalidades e submodalidades.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Paulo Peres, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Instituto de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas (IFCH), Departamento e Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Política (PPG-CP UFRGS).

Amanda Machado, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Instituto de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas (IFCH), doutora pelo Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Política na UFPR.

Referências

ALDRICH, J. Why parties? The origin and transformation of political parties in America. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1995.

BAILEY, K. “Polythetic reduction of monothetic property space”. In: COSTNER, H. (ed.). Sociological Methodology, vol. 1. San Diego: Jossey-Bass, 1972.

BAILEY, K. “Monothetic and polythetic typologies and their relation to conceptualization measurement, and scaling”. American Sociological Review, vol. 38, p. 18-32, 1973.

BAILEY, K. Clusters analysis. In: HEISE, D. (ed.). Sociological Methodology, vol. 2. San Diego: Jossey-Bass, 1974.

BAILEY, K. Typologies. In: BORGATTA, E.; BORGATTA, M. (eds.). Encyclopedia of sociology. New York: MacMillan, 1992.

BAILEY, K. Typologies and taxonomies: an introduction to classification techniques. London: Sage, 1994. BARBER, J. The lawmakers: recruitment and adaptation to legislation. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965.

BLACK, G. “A theory of political ambition: careers choice and the role of structural incentives”. American Political Science Review, vol. 66, nº 1, p. 144-159, 1972.

BLYTH, M.; KATZ, R. “From catch-all politics to cartelisation”. West European Politics, vol. 28, nº 1, p. 33-60, 2005.

BOLOGNESI, B. “A seleção de candidaturas no DEM, PMDB, PSDB e PT nas eleições legislativas federais brasileiras de 2010: percepções dos candidatos sobre a formação das listas”. Revista de Sociologia e Política, vol. 21, nº 46, p. 45-68, 2013.

BOLOGNESI, B.; MEDEIROS, P. “Aspectos motivacionais do recrutamento político: um estudo inicial dos candidatos a deputado federal no Brasil [2010]”. Paraná Eleitoral: Revista Brasileira de Direito Eleitoral e Ciência Política, vol. 3, nº 2, p. 301-326, 2014.

BOWKER, G.; STAR, S. Sorting things out: classification and its consequences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

BRAGA, M. S.; AMARAL, O. “Implicações do processo de seleção de candidatos na competição partidária: o caso brasileiro”. Revista de Sociologia e Política, vol. 21, nº 46, p. 33-43, 2013.

BRAGA, M. S.; BOLOGNESI, B. Dimensões do processo de seleção da classe política brasileira: autopercepções dos candidatos à Câmara dos Deputados nas eleições de 2010. In: MARENCO, A. (org.). Os eleitos: representação e carreiras políticas em democracias. Porto Alegre: Editora da UFRGS, 2013.

BRAGA, M. S.; VEIGA, L.; MIRÍADE, A. “Recrutamento e perfil dos candidatos e dos eleitos à Câmara dos Deputados nas eleições de 2006”. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais, vol. 24, nº 70, p. 123- 142, 2009.

BRUTER, M.; HARRISON, S. The future of our democracies: young party members in Europe. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

CAMP, R. Political recruitment across two centuries: Mexico 1884-1991. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995.

CAMP, R. Political recruitment, governance and leadership: has democracy made a difference?. In: SIAVELIS, P.; MORGENSTERN, S. (eds.). Pathways to power: political recruitment and candidate selection in Latin America. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008.

CLARKE, A.; PRIMO, D. “Modernizing political science: a model-based approach”. Perspectives on Politics, vol. 5, nº 4, p. 741-753, 2007.

CLARKE, A. A model discipline: political science and the logic of representations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

CHANDRA, C. “Supply chain system taxonomy: a framework and methodology”. Human Systems Management, vol. 24, nº 4, p. 245-258, 2005.

CODATO, A.; COSTA, L. D.; MASSIMO, L. (orgs.). Retratos da classe política brasileira: estudos de ciência política. Curitiba: Novas Edições Acadêmicas, 2015.

COLLIER, D.; LAPORTE, J.; SEAWRIGHT, J. “Putting typologies to work: concept formation, measurement, and analytic rigor”. Political Research Quarterly, vol. 65, nº 1, p. 217-232, 2012.

COSTA, L. D.; CODATO, A. A profissionalização da classe política brasileira: um perfil dos senadores da República. In: MARENCO, A. (org.). Os eleitos: representação e carreiras políticas em democracias. Porto Alegre: Editora da UFRGS, 2013.

COSTA, P. R.; COSTA, L. D.; NUNES, W. “Os senadores-empresários: recrutamento, carreira e partidos políticos dos empresários no Senado brasileiro (1986-2010)”. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Política, vol. 14, nº 2, p. 227-253, 2014.

CORADINI, O. Em nome de quem? Recursos sociais no recrutamento da elite política. Rio de Janeiro: Relume-Dumará, 2001.

CORADINI, O. “Engajamento associativo-sindical e recrutamento de elites políticas: tendências recentes no Brasil”. Revista de Sociologia Política, n° 28, p. 181-203, 2007.

CROSS, W. Party leadership selection and intra-party democracy. In: CROSS, W.; KATZ, R. (eds.). The challenges of intra-party democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

CZUDNOWSKI, M. Political recruitment. In: GREENSTEIN, F.; POLSBY, N. (eds.). Handbook of political science: micropolitical theory. Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1975.

DALTON, R. Citizen politics. Washington: Congressional Quarterly Press, 2005.

DALTON, R.; WATTENBERG, M. Parties without partisans: political change in advanced industrial societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

DELWIT, P. Still in decline? Party membership in Europe. In: VAN HAUTE, E. (ed.). Party membership in Europe: exploration into the anthills of party politics. Bruxelles: Université de Bruxeles, 2011.

DIAMOND, L.; GUNTHER, R. (eds.). Political parties and democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

DIESING, P. Patterns of discovery in the social sciences. New Brunswick: Aldine Transactions, 1971.

DOTY, D.; GLICK, W. “Typologies as a unique form of theory building: towards improved understanding and modelling”. Academy of Management Review, vol. 19, nº 2, p. 230-251, 1994.

DUVERGER, M. Les partis politique. Paris: Armand Colin, 1951.

EPSTEIN, L. Political parties in Western democracies. New Jersey: Transaction, 1980.

EULAU, H.; CZUDNOWSKI, M. Elite recruitment in democratic polities. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1976.

FLEISCHER, D. “O pluripartidarismo no Brasil: dimensões socioeconômicas e regionais do recrutamento legislativo (1946-1967)”. Revista de Ciência Política, vol. 24, nº 1, p. 49-75, 1981.

FOWLER, L. Candidates, Congress, and the American democracy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1993.

FOWLER, L.; MCLURE, R. Political ambition: who decides to run for Congress. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.

FREY, F. The Turkish political elite. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1966.

GALLAGHER, M.; MARSH, M. Candidate selection in comparative perspective. London: Sage, 1988.

GAUJA, A. The politics of party policy: from members to legislators. Houndmills: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013.

GOSNELL, H. Negro politicians: the rise of negro politics in Chicago. University of Chicago Press, 1933.

GOSNELL, H. Machine politics: Chicago model. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1937.

GUNTHER, R.; DIAMOND, L. Types and functions of parties. In: GUNTHER, R.; DIAMOND, L. (eds.). Political parties and democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

GUNTHER, R.; MONTERO, J.; LINZ, J. Political parties: old concepts and new challenges. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

GREGORY, S. “The nature of theory in information systems”. MIS Quarterly, vol. 30, nº 3, p. 611-642, 2006.

HAZAN, R. Candidate selection. In: LEDUC. L.; NIEMI, R.; NORRIS, P. (eds.). Comparing democracies. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2002.

HEMPEL, C. “Typological methods in the natural and social sciences”. Proceedings of American Philosophical Society, vol. 1, p. 656-686, 1952.

HEMPEL, C. Explanation in science and history. In: COLODNY, R. (ed.). Frontiers of science and philosophy. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1962.

HEMPEL, C.; OPPENHEIM, P. “Studies in the logic of explanation”. Philosophy of Science, vol. 15, p. 567-579, 1948.

JACOB, E. “Classification and categorization: a difference that makes a difference”. Library Trends, vol. 52, nº 3, p. 515-540, 2004.

KATZ, R. “The problem of candidate selection and models of party democracy”. Party Politics, vol. 7, nº 3, p. 277-296, 2001.

KATZ, R., et al. “The membership of political parties in European democracies (1960-1990)”. European Journal of Political Research, vol. 22, nº 3, p. 329-345, 1992.

KATZ, R.; MAIR, P. Party organizations: a data handbook on party organizations in Western democracies (1960-1990). London: Sage, 1992.

KATZ, R. “The evolution of party organizations in Europe: the three faces of party organization”. American Review of Politics, vol. 14, p. 593-617, 1993.

KATZ, R. “Changing models of party organization and party democracy: the emergence of the cartel party”. Party Politics, vol. 1, nº 1, p. 5-28, 1995.

KATZ, R. “Cadre, catch-all, or cartel? A rejoinder”. Party Politics, vol. 2, nº 4, p. 524-534, 1996.

KATZ, R. The ascendancy of the party in public office: party organizational change in twentiethcentury democracies. In: GUNTHER, R.; MONTERO, J.; LINZ, J. (eds.). Political parties: old concepts and new challenges. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

KATZ, R. “The cartel party thesis: a restatement”. Perspectives on Politics, vol. 7, nº 4, p. 753-766, 2009.

KATZ, R. “Parties, interest groups and cartels: a comment”. Party Politics, vol. 18, nº 1, p. 107- 111, 2012.

KIRCHHEIMER, O. “The waning of opposition in parliamentary regimes”. Social Research, vol. 24, p. 127-156, 1957.

KIRCHHEIMER, O. “The transformation of the Western European party system”. In: LAPALOMBARA, J.; WEINER, M. (eds.). Political parties and political development. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966.

KIRCHHEIMER, O. “A transformação dos sistemas partidários na Europa Ocidental”. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Política, vol. 7, nº 1, p. 349-388, 2012.

KITSCHELT, H. “Citizen, politicians, and party cartelization”. European Journal of Political Research, vol. 37, nº 2, p. 149-179, 2000.

KLUGE, S. “Empirically grounded construction of types and typologies in qualitative social research”. Qualitative Social Research, vol. 1, nº 1, p. 1-8, 2000.

KÖLLN, A. K. “Party membership in Europe: testing party-level explanations of decline”. Party Politics, vol. 22, nº 4, p. 1-13, 2016.

KOOLE, R. “Cadre, catch-all or cartel? A comment on the notion of the cartel party”. Party Politics, vol. 2, nº 4, p. 507-534, 1996.

KOPECKY, P. “Developing party organizations in East-Central Europe: what type of party is likely to emerge?”. Party Politics, vol. 1, nº 4, p. 515-534, 1995.

KROUWEL, A. “Otto Kirchheimer and the catch-all party”. West European Politics, vol. 26, nº 2, p. 23- 40, 2003.

KROUWEL, A. Party models. In: KATZ, R.; CROTTY, W. (eds.). Handbook of party politics. London: Sage, 2006.

KROUWEL, A. Party transformations in European democracies. New York: State University of New York Press, 2012.

KUHN, T. The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1962.

LAVE, C.; MARCH, J. An introduction to models in the social sciences. New York: Harper and Row, 1975.

LAWSON, K. Political parties and linkage: a comparative perspective. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980.

LAZARSFELD, P. “Some remarks on the typological procedures in social research”. Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung, vol. 6, p. 119-139, 1937.

LAZARSFELD, P.; BARTON, A. Qualitative measurement in the social sciences: classification, typologies, and indices. In: LERNER, D.; LASSWELL, H. (eds.). The policy sciences. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1951.

LEISERSON, A. Parties and politics: an institutional and behavioral approach. New York: Knopf, 1958.

LEWIS, P. G. Political parties in post-communist Eastern Europe. London: Routledge, 2000.

LOMNICKI, A. “Individual-based models and the individual-based approach to population ecology”. Ecology Modeling, vol. 115, p. 191-198, 1999.

LOVE, J. A locomotiva: São Paulo na federação brasileira (1890-1937). Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra, 1982.

LOVE, J.; BARICKMAN, B. Regional elites. In: CONNIFF, M.; MCCANN, F. (eds.). Modern Brazil: elites and masses in historical perspective. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1991.

LOEWENBERG, G.; PATTERSON, S. Comparing legislatures. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1979.

MAINWARING, S. Rethinking party systems in the third wave of democratization: the case of Brazil. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999.

MAINWARING, S.; SCULLY, T. Building democratic institutions: party systems in Latin America. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995.

MAIR, P. Party system change: approaches and interpretations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

MAIR, P. “Democracy beyond parties”, eScholarship Respository, Paper 05’06, Center for the Study of Democracy, University of California, Irvine. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 12 out. 2005.

MAIR, P. “Ruling the void: the hollowing of Western democracy”. New Left Review, vol. 42, p. 25- 51, 2006.

MAIR, P.; VAN BIEZEN, I. V. “Party membership in twenty European democracies (1980-2000)”. Party Politics, vol. 7, nº 1, p. 5-21, 2001.

MARENCO, A. “Nas fronteiras do campo político: raposas e outsiders no Congresso Nacional”. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Sociais, vol. 12, nº 33, p. 87-101, 1997.

MARENCO, A. “Le renouveau politique: carrières politiques et liens de parti au Brésil (1946-2002)”. Politique et Societés, vol. 23, nº 2, p. 109-133, 2002.

MARENCO, A. “Still a traditional political class? Patterns of parliamentary recruitment in Brazil”. Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, vol. 30, nº 60, p. 13-40, 2005.

MARENCO, A. O que podemos explicar estudando carreiras políticas?. In: MARENCO, A. (org.). Os eleitos: representação e carreiras políticas em democracias. Porto Alegre: Editora da UFRGS, 2013.

MARENCO, A.; SERNA, M. “Por que carreiras políticas na esquerda e na direita não são iguais? Recrutamento legislativo em Brasil, Chile e Uruguai”. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais, vol. 22, nº 64, p. 93-113, 2007.

MARRADI, A. “Classification, typology, taxonomy”. Quality and Quantity, vol. 24, nº 2, p. 129-157, 1990.

MARTZ, J. “Political parties and candidate selection in Venezuela and Colombia”. Political Science Quarterly, vol. 114, nº 4, p. 639-659, 1999.

MARVICK, D. Political and careers. In: SILLS, D. (ed.). International encyclopedia of the social sciences. New York: MacMillam, 1968.

MATTHEWS, D. Legislative recruitment and legislative careers. In: LOEWENBERG, G.; PATTERSON, S.; JEWELL, M. (eds.). Handbook of legislative research. Cambridge: Harvard Univesity Press, 1985.

MAY, J. “Opinion structure of political parties: the special law of curvilinear disparity”. Political Studies, vol. 21, nº 1, p. 135-151, 1973.

MCCLELLAND, D. The achieving society. Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1961.

MCKINNEY, J. Constructive typology and social theory. New York: Meridth Publishing Company, 1966.

MEYER, R. Mapping the mind of the strategist: a quantitative methodology for measuring the strategic beliefs of executives. Erasmus University Press, 2007.

MEZEY, M. Comparative legislatures. Durham: Duke University Press, 1979.

MICELI, S. Carne e osso da elite política brasileira pós-1930. In: FAUSTO, B. (org.). História geral da civilização brasileira. Tomo III – O Brasil republicano, sociedade e política (1930-1964). Rio de Janeiro: Difel, 1996.

MICHELS, R. Para uma sociologia dos partidos políticos na democracia moderna. Lisboa: Antígona, 2001 [1911].

MILBRATH, L. The Washington lobbyists. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1963. MORAN, E. Human adaptability. Philadelphia: Westview Press, 2008.

MORLINO, L. Democracy between consolidation and crisis: parties, groups and citizens in Southern Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

MÜLLER, G. “Comissões e partidos políticos na Câmara dos Deputados: um estudo sobre os padrões partidários de recrutamento para as comissões permanentes”. Dados, vol. 48, nº 1, p. 371-394, 2005.

NEIVA, P.; IZUMI, M. “Os ‘doutores’ da federação: formação acadêmica dos senadores brasileiros e variáveis associadas”. Revista de Sociologia e Política, vol. 21, nº 41, p. 171-192, 2012.

NOWOTNY, H. “The uses of typological procedures in qualitative macro-sociological studies”. Quality and Quantity, vol. 24, nº 1, p. 3-37, 1971.

NORRIS, P. Legislative recruitment. In: LEDUC, N.; NORRIS, P. (eds.). Comparing democracies: elections and voting in global perspective. London: Sage, 1996.

NORRIS, P. Introduction: theories of recruitment. In: NORRIS, P. (ed.). Passages to power: legislative recruitment in advanced democracies. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

NORRIS, P. Reinventing political activism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

NORRIS, P. Recruitment. In: KATZ, R.; CROTTY, W. (eds.). Handbook on political parties. London: Sage, 2006.

NORRIS, P., et al. “Party selectorates in Australia, Britain and Canada: prolegomena for research in the 1990s”. The Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, vol. 28, p. 219-245, 1990.

NORRIS, P.; LOVENDUSKI, J. Political recruitment: gender, race and class in British parliament. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

PANEBIANCO, A. Modeli di partito: organizzazione e potere nei partiti politici. Roma: Il Mulino, 1982.

PENNINGS, P.; HAZAN, R. “Democratizing candidate selection: causes and consequences”. Party Politics, vol. 7, nº 3, p. 267-275, 2001.

PERES, P. “Revisitando a ‘teoria geral dos partidos’, de Maurice Duverger”. Revista Brasileira de Informação Bibliográfica em Ciências Sociais – BIB, vol. 68, nº 2, p. 17-58, 2009.

PERISSINOTTO, R.; BOLOGNESI, B. “O recrutamento político no PT e no PFL paranaense nas eleições de 2006: sugestões de pesquisa”. Revista Mediações, vol. 14, nº 1, p. 143-169, 2009.

PERISSINOTTO, R.; MIRÍADE, A. “Caminhos para o parlamento: candidatos e eleitos nas eleições para deputado federal em 2006”. Dados, vol. 52, nº 2, p. 301-303, 2009. POLYA, G. How to solve it. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973.

POPPER, K. The logic of scientific discovery. London: Hutchinson and Co, 1959.

POWER, T.; MOCHEL, M. Political recruitment in an executive-centric system: presidents, governors, and ministers in Brazil. In: SIAVELIS, P.; MORGENSTEIN, S. (eds). Pathways to power: political recruitment and candidate selection in Latin America. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008.

PREWITT, K. The recruitment of political leaders. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1970.

RAHAT, G.; HAZAN, R. “Candidate selection methods: an analytical framework”. Party Politics, vol. 7, nº 3, p. 297-322, 2001.

RANNEY, A. Pathways to parliament: candidate selection in Britain. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1965.

RANNEY, A. Candidate selection. In: BUTLER, D; PENNIMAN, H.; RANNEY, A. (eds.). Democracy at the polls: a comparative study of competitive national elections. Washington: American Enterprise Institute for Public Research, 1981.

RODRIGUES, L. M. Partidos, ideologia e composição social: um estudo das bancadas partidárias da Câmara dos Deputados. São Paulo: Edusp, 2002.

ODRIGUES, L. M. Políticos do Brasil: uma investigação sobre o patrimônio declarado e a ascensão daqueles que exercem o poder. São Paulo: Publifolha, 2006.

ROHDE, D. “Risk bearing and progressive ambition: the case of members of the United States House of Representatives”. American Journal of Political Science, vol. 23, p. 1-26, 1979.

SALTER, J. T. (ed.). The American politician. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1938.

SAMUELS, D. Ambition, federalism, and legislative politics in Brazil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

SAMUELS, D. Political ambition, candidate recruitment, and legislative politics in Brazil. In: SIAVELIS, P.; MORGENSTERN, S. (eds.). Pathways to power: political recruitment and candidate selection in Latin America. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008.

SCARROW, S. Parties and their members. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

SCARROW, S. Parties without members? Party organization in a changing electoral environment. In: DALTON, R.; WATTENBERG, M. (eds.). Parties without partisans: political changing in advanced industrial democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

SCARROW, S. Beyound party members: changing approaches to partisan mobilization. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

SCARROW, S.; GEZGOR, B. “Declining membership, changing members? European political party members in a new era”. Party Politics, vol. 16, nº 6, p. 823-843, 2010.

SCARROW, S.; WEBB, P. “Assessing party organizational change: participation, representation and power”, APSA Proceedings, American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, 2013.

SCHATTSCHNEIDER, E. Party government. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Wiston, 1942.

SCHELESINGER, J. The crisis of the old order. New York: Mariner Books, 1957.

SCHELESINGER, J. Ambition and politics: political careers in the United States. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co, 1966.

SCHELESINGER, J. Political parties and the winning of office. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991.

SELIGMAN, L. Recruiting political elites. New York: General Learning Press, 1971.

SEYD, P. “New parties, new politics? A case study of the British Labour Party”. Party Politics, vol. 5, nº 3, p. 383-405, 1999.

SIAVELIS, P. “The hidden logic of candidate selection for Chilean parliamentary elections”. Comparative Politics, vol. 34, nº 4, p. 419-438, 2002.

SIAVELIS, P.; MORGENSTERN, S. Political recruitmen and candidate selection in Latin America: A framework for analysis. In: SIAVELIS, P.; MORGENSTERN, S. (eds.). Pathways to power: political recruitment and candidate selection in Latin America. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008.

SNEATH, P.; SOKAL, R. Numerical taxonomy: the principles and practice of numerical classification. San Francisco: Freeman, 1973.

SPECK, B. “Political ambition and the spoils of victory: an exploratory analysis of party membership in Brazil”, ECPR Joint Sessions, Workshop: Contemporary Meaning of Party Membership, Salamanca, 2014.

STAR, S. Categories and cognition: material and conceptual aspects of large-scale category systems. In: DERRY, S.; GERNSBACHER, M. (eds.). Interdiscipinary collaboration: an emerging cognitive science. New Jersey: LEA Inc, 2005.

TIRYAKIAN, E. Typologies. In: SILLS, D. (ed.). International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. New York: MacMillan and Free Press, 1968.

VAN BIEZEN, I. Political parties in new democracies: party organization in Southern and East-Central Europe. London: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003.

VAN BIEZEN, I.; POGUNTKE, T. “The decline of membership-based politics”. Party Politics, vol. 20, nº 2, p. 205-216, 2014.

VAN BIEZEN, I.; MAIR, P.; POGUNTKE, T. “Going, going, gone? The decline of party membership in contemporary Europe”. European Journal of Political Research, vol. 51, p. 24-56, 2012.

VAN BIEZEN, I.; KOPECKY, P. “The State and the parties: public funding, public regulation and rent seeking in contemporary democracies”. Party Politics, vol. 13, p. 235-254, 2007.

VAN HAUTE, E. Party membership: an understudied mode of political participation. In: VAN HAUTE, E. (ed.). Party membership in Europe: explorations into the anthills of party politics. Bruxelles: Université de Bruxelles, 2011.

WARE, A. Political parties and party systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

WEBB, P. Party organizational change in Britain: the iron law of centralization?. In: KATZ, R.; MAIR, P. (eds.). How parties organize. London: Sage, 1995.

WEBB, P.; FARREL, D.; HOLLIDAY, I. Political parties in advanced industrial democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

WEBER, M. Ciência e política: duas vocações. São Paulo: Cultrix, 1992 [1919].

WHITELEY, P. “Is the party over? The decline of party activism and membership across the democratic world”. Party Politics, vol. 17, nº 1, p. 21-44, 2011.

WHITELEY, P.; SEYD, P. “The dynamics of party activism in Britain: a spiral of demobilization?”. British Journal of Political Science, vol. 28, pp. 113-138, 1998.

Downloads

Publicado

2017-08-24

Como Citar

PERES, P.; MACHADO, A. Uma tipologia do recrutamento partidário. Opinião Pública, Campinas, SP, v. 23, n. 1, p. 126–167, 2017. Disponível em: https://periodicos.sbu.unicamp.br/ojs/index.php/op/article/view/8650173. Acesso em: 20 jan. 2022.

Edição

Seção

Artigos