Preocupação com as mudanças climáticas, condições econômicas individuais e priorização do meio ambiente na América Latina

Autores

Palavras-chave:

Atitudes ambientais, Preocupação com a mudança climática, Priorização ambiental, Condições econômicas, Modelos hierárquicos lineares, América Latina

Resumo

Os cidadãos da América Latina estão mais preocupados com as consequências das mudanças climáticas do que os de qualquer outra região do mundo. No entanto, essa preocupação nem sempre leva a priorizar o meio ambiente sobre o crescimento econômico. Este artigo argumenta que as restrições econômicas dos indivíduos condicionam a relação entre suas crenças sobre a gravidade das consequências das mudanças climáticas e suas preferências a respeito do dilema entre priorizar o meio ambiente ou o crescimento econômico. A análise dos levantamentos de 2016 do Barômetro das Américas (Lapop) em 18 países latino-americanos, com modelos hierárquicos lineares e equações estruturais generalizadas, mostra que a preocupação com as mudanças climáticas tem um efeito positivo significativo sobre a priorização do meio ambiente entre indivíduos com riqueza acima da média e um efeito negativo entre indivíduos com riqueza abaixo da média. Este artigo traz duas contribuições. Em primeiro lugar, o estudo analisa o efeito condicionado da preocupação pela mudança climática sobre a priorização do meio ambiente dependendo da situação econômica individual e, em segundo lugar, contribui para o conhecimento das atitudes ambientais na América Latina.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Alejandra Armesto, Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales

Profesor de la Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales.

Referências

ANDERSON, B.; BOHMELT, T.; WARD, H. “Public opinion and environmental policy output: a cross-national analysis of energy policies in Europe”. Environmental Research Letters, vol. 12, nº 11, p. 10, nov. 2017.

ARNOLD, J. R. “Political awareness, corruption perceptions and democratic accountability in Latin America”. Acta Politica, vol. 47, nº 1, p. 67-90, 2012.

ARPAD, T. “Willing to pay to save the planet? Evaluating support for increased spending on sustainable development and environmentally friendly policies in five countries”. Plos One, vol. 13, nº 11, p. 15, nov. 2018.

BAEZ, J., et al. “Droughts augment youth migration in Northern Latin America and the Caribbean”. Climatic Change, vol. 140, nº 3-4, p. 423-435, fev. 2017.

BAKAKI, Z.; BERNAUER, T. “Do economic conditions affect public support for environmental policy?”. Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 195, p. 66-78, set. 2018.

BALDWIN, K.; HUBER, J. D. “Economic versus cultural differences: forms of ethnic diversity and public goods provision”. American Political Science Review, vol. 104, nº 4, p. 644-662, 2010.

BASTO-ABREU, A. C., et al. “Behaviours and opinions towards outdoor smoking bans and cigarette littering in Baja California, Mexico”. Health Policy and Planning, vol. 31, nº 3, p. 309-313, abr. 2016.

BORISOVA, E., et al. “Social capital and preferences for redistribution to target groups”. European Journal of Political Economy, vol. 54, nº SI, p. 56-67, 2018.

BOU-HABIB, P. “Climate justice and historical responsibility”. Journal of Politics, vol. 81, nº 4, p. 1.298-1.310, out. 2019.

BRECHIN, S. R. “Objective problems, subjective values, and global environmentalism: evaluating the postmaterialist argument and challenging a new explanation”. Social Science Quarterly, vol. 80, nº 4, p. 793-809, dez. 1999.

BROUWER, R.; BRANDER, L.; VAN BEUKERING, P. “‘A convenient truth’: air travel passengers’ willingness to pay to offset their CO2 emissions”. Climatic Change, vol. 90, nº 3, p. 299-313, 1 out. 2008.

BURSTEIN, P. “The impact of public opinion on public policy: a review and an agenda”. Political Research Quarterly, vol. 56, nº 1, p. 29-40, mar. 2003.

CAO, X.; WARD, H. “Winning coalition size, state capacity, and time horizons: an application of modified selectorate theory to environmental public goods provision”. International Studies Quarterly, vol. 59, nº 2, p. 264-279, jun. 2015.

CHANKRAJANG, T.; MUTTARAK, R. “Green returns to education: does schooling contribute to pro-environmental behaviours? Evidence from Thailand”. Ecological Economics, vol. 131, p. 434-448, jan. 2017.

DARIER, E.; SCHÜLE, R. “‘Think globally, act locally’? Climate change and public participation in Manchester and Frankfurt”. Local Environment, vol. 4, nº 3, p. 317-329, 1999.

DAYRELL, C. “Discourses around climate change in Brazilian newspapers: 2003-2013”. Discourse & Communication, vol. 13, nº 2, p. 149-171, abr. 2019.

DAYRELL, C.; URRY, J. “Mediating climate politics: the surprising case of Brazil”. European Journal of Social Theory, vol. 18, nº 3, p. 257-273, ago. 2015.

DEBONO, R.; VINCENTI, K.; CALLEJA, N. “Risk communication: climate change as a human-health threat, a survey of public perceptions in Malta”. European Journal of Public Health, vol. 22, nº 1, p. 144-149, 2010.

DIEKMANN, A.; FRANZEN, A. “The wealth of nations and environmental concern”. Environment and Behavior, vol. 31, nº 4, p. 540-549, jul. 1999.

DINDA, S. “Environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis: a survey”. Ecological Economics, vol. 49, nº 4, p. 431-455, 2004.

DREWS, S.; VAN DEN BERGH, J. C. J. M. “What explains public support for climate policies? A review of empirical and experimental studies”. Climate Policy, vol. 16, nº 7, p. 855-876, 2016.

DUNLAP, R. E.; MCCRIGHT, A. M. “A widening gap: Republican and Democratic views on climate change”. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, vol. 50, nº 5, p. 26-35, 2008.

DUNLAP, R. E.; MERTIG, A. G. “Global concern for the environment: is affluence a prerequisite?”. Journal of Social Issues, vol. 51, nº 4, p. 121-137, 1995.

DUNLAP, R. E.; MERTIG, A. G. “Global environmental concern: an anomaly for postmaterialism”. Social Science Quarterly, vol. 78, nº 1, p. 24-29, mar. 1997.

DUNLAP, R. E.; YORK, R. “The globalization of environmental concern and the limits of the postmaterialist values explanation: evidence from four multinational surveys”. Sociological Quarterly, vol. 49, nº 3, p. 529-563, 2008.

ELIAS, T., et al. “Media use, cross-national samples, and the theory of planned behavior: implications for climate change advocacy intentions”. International Journal of Communication, vol. 13, p. 3.694-3.718, 2019.

FENG, S. Z.; KRUEGER, A. B.; OPPENHEIMER, M. “Linkages among climate change, crop yields and Mexico-US cross-border migration”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, nº 32, p. 14.257-14.262, ago. 2010.

FICKO, A.; BONCINA, A. “Public attitudes toward environmental protection in the most developed countries: the environmental concern Kuznets curve theory”. Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 231, p. 968-981, fev. 2019.

FRANZEN, A. “Environmental attitudes in international comparison: an analysis of the ISSP surveys 1993 and 2000”. Social Science Quarterly, vol. 84, nº 2, p. 297-308, jun. 2003.

FRANZEN, A.; MEYER, R. “Environmental attitudes in cross-national perspective: a multilevel analysis of the ISSP 1993 and 2000”. European Sociological Review, vol. 26, nº 2, p. 219-234, 2009.

FRANZEN, A.; VOGL, D. “Acquiescence and the willingness to pay for environmental protection: a comparison of the ISSP, WVS, and EVS”. Social Science Quarterly, vol. 94, nº 3, p. 637-659, set. 2012.

FRANZEN, A.; VOGL, D. “Two decades of measuring environmental attitudes: a comparative analysis of 33 countries”. Global Environmental Change, vol. 23, nº 5, p. 1.001-1.008, 2013.

GELISSEN, J. “Explaining popular support for environmental protection: a multilevel analysis of 50 nations”. Environment and Behavior, vol. 39, nº 3, p. 392-415, 2007.

GRAHAM, H., et al. “Willingness to pay for policies to reduce future deaths from climate change: evidence from a British survey”. Public Health, vol. 174, p. 110-117, 2019.

GUBER, D. L. Partisan cueing and polarization in public opinion about climate change. In: NISBET, M. et al. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.

HAMILTON, L., et al. “Tracking public beliefs about anthropogenic climate change”. PloS One, vol. 10, p. e0138208, 2015.

HAPPER, C.; WELLESLEY, L. “Meat consumption, behaviour and the media environment: a focus group analysis across four countries”. Food Security, vol. 11, nº 1, p. 123-139, fev. 2019.

HARRING, N.; JAGERS, S. C.; MATTI, S. “Public support for pro-environmental policy measures: examining the impact of personal values and ideology”. Sustainability, vol. 9, nº 5, p. 14, maio 2017.

HERSCH, J.; VISCUSI, W. K. “The generational divide in support for environmental policies: European evidence”. Climatic Change, vol. 77, nº 1-2, p. 121-136, jul. 2006.

HINCHLIFFE, S. “Helping the earth begins at home: the social construction of socio-environmental responsibilities”. Global Environmental Change, vol. 6, nº 1, p. 53-62, 1996.

INGLEHART, R. The silent revolution: changing values and political styles among Western publics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1977.

INGLEHART, R. “Post-materialism in an environment of insecurity”. American Political Science Review, vol. 75, nº 4, p. 880-900, 1981.

INGLEHART, R. “Aggregate stability and individual-level flux in mass belief systems: the level of analysis paradox”. American Political Science Review, vol. 79, nº 1, p. 97-116, 1985.

INGLEHART, R. “Public support for environmental protection: objective problems and subjective values in 43 societies”. PS: Political Science & Politics, vol. 28, nº 1, p. 57-72, 1995.

INGLEHART, R.; ABRAMSON, P. R. “Economic security and value change”. American Political Science Review, vol. 88, nº 2, p. 336-354, 1994.

JOHNSON, E. W.; SCHWADEL, P. “It is not a cohort thing: interrogating the relationship between age, cohort, and support for the environment”. Environment and Behavior, vol. 51, nº 7, p. 879-901, ago. 2019.

KACHI, A.; BERNAUER, T.; GAMPFER, R. “Climate policy in hard times: are the pessimists right?”. Ecological Economics, vol. 114, p. 227-241, jun. 2015.

KELLSTEDT, P.; ZAHRAN, S.; VEDLITZ, A. “Personal efficacy, the information environment, and attitudes toward global warming and climate change in the United States”. Risk Analysis: An official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis, vol. 28, p. 113-126, 2008.

KÖLLN, A.-K. “Political sophistication affects how citizens’ social policy preferences respond to the economy”. West European Politics, vol. 41, nº 1, p. 196-217, 2018.

KUZNETS, S. “Economic growth and income inequality”. The American Economic Review, vol. 45, nº 1, p. 1-28, 1955.

KVALOY, B.; FINSERAAS, H.; LISTHAUG, O. “The publics’ concern for global warming: a cross-national study of 47 countries”. Journal of Peace Research, vol. 49, nº 1, p. 11-22, jan. 2012.

LEISEROWITZ, A. “Climate change risk perception and policy preferences: the role of affect, imagery, and values”. Climatic Change, vol. 77, nº 1-2, p. 45-72, jul. 2006.

LERGETPORER, P., et al. “How information affects support for education spending: evidence from survey experiments in Germany and the United States”. Journal of Public Economics, vol. 167, p. 138-157, 2018.

LORENZONI, I.; NICHOLSON-COLE, S.; WHITMARSH, L. “Barriers perceived to engaging with climate change among the UK public and their policy implications”. Global Environmental Change, vol. 17, nº 3, p. 445-459, 2007.

LUBELL, M., et al. “Collective action, environmental activism, and air quality policy”. Political Research Quarterly, vol. 59, nº 1, p. 149-160, mar. 2006.

MALKA, A.; LELKES, Y. “More than ideology: conservative-liberal identity and receptivity to political cues”. Social Justice Research, vol. 23, nº 2-3, p. 156-188, 2010.

MAYER, A.; SMITH, E. K. “Unstoppable climate change? The influence of fatalistic beliefs about climate change on behavioural change and willingness to pay cross-nationally”. Climate Policy, vol. 19, nº 4, p. 511-523, abr. 2019.

MCCRIGHT, A. M.; DUNLAP, R. E. “Bringing ideology in: the conservative white male effect on worry about environmental problems in the USA”. Journal of Risk Research, vol. 16, nº 2, p. 211-226, 2013.

MCCRIGHT, A. M.; XIAO, C. “Gender and environmental concern: insights from recent work and for future research”. Society & Natural Resources, vol. 27, nº 10, p. 1.109-1.113, 2014.

MILDENBERGER, M.; TINGLEY, D. “Beliefs about climate beliefs: the importance of second-order opinions for climate politics”. British Journal of Political Science, vol. 49, nº 4, p. 1.279-1.307, out. 2019.

MITTIGA, R. Allocating the burdens of climate action: consumption-based carbon accounting and the polluter-pays principle. In: EDMONDSON, B.; LEVY, S. (Eds.). Transformative climates and accountable governance (Palgrave Studies in Environmental Transformation Transition and Accountability). Basingstoke: Palgrave, p. 157-194, 2019.

NEUMAYER, E. “In defence of historical accountability for greenhouse gas emissions”. Ecological Economics, vol. 33, nº 2, p. 185-192, 2000.

NEUMAYER, E. “The environment, left-wing political orientation and ecological economics”. Ecological Economics, vol. 51, nº 3-4, p. 167-175, 2004.

NISBET, M. C. “Communicating climate change: why frames matter for public engagement”. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, vol. 51, nº 2, p. 12-23, 2009.

O’CONNOR, R. E.; BORD, R. J.; FISHER, A. “Risk perceptions, general environmental beliefs, and willingness to address climate change”. Risk Analysis, vol. 19, nº 3, p. 461-471, jun. 1999.

O’CONNOR, R. E., et al. “Who wants to reduce greenhouse gas emissions?”. Social Science Quarterly, vol. 83, nº 1, p. 1-17, 2002.

OSTMAN, R. E.; PARKER, J. L. “Impact of education, age, newspapers, and television on environmental knowledge, concerns, and behaviors”. The Journal of Environmental Education, vol. 19, nº 1, p. 3-9, 1987.

PAGE, B.; SHAPIRO, R. “Effects of public opinion on policy”. The American Political Science Review, vol. 77, nº 1, p. 175-190, 1983.

POST, D.; MENG, Y. “Does schooling foster environmental values and action? A cross-national study of priorities and behaviors”. International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 60, p. 10-18, maio 2018.

POVITKINA, M. “The limits of democracy in tackling climate change”. Environmental Politics, vol. 27, nº 3, p. 411-432, 2018.

PUGATCH, T. “Tropical storms and mortality under climate change”. World Development, vol. 117, p. 172-182, maio 2019.

RAUDENBUSH, S. W.; BRYK, A. S. Hierarchical linear models. 2ª ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 2002.

RUBIN, O.; ROSSING, T. “National and local vulnerability to climate-related disasters in Latin America: the role of social asset-based adaptation”. Bulletin of Latin American Research, vol. 31, nº 1, p. 19-35, jan. 2012.

SLOVIC, P. “Perception of risk”. Science, vol. 236, nº 4.799, p. 280-285, 1987.

SNIJDERS, T. A. B.; BOSKER, R. J. Multilevel analysis: an introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling. London: Sage, 1999.

SONNENSCHEIN, J.; SMEDBY, N. “Designing air ticket taxes for climate change mitigation: insights from a Swedish valuation study”. Climate Policy, vol. 19, nº 5, p. 651-663, maio 2019.

STENNER, K.; NWOKORA, Z. “Current and future friends of the earth: assessing cross-national theories of environmental attitudes”. Energies, vol. 8, nº 6, p. 4.899-4.919, jun. 2015.

STOKES, B.; WIKE, R.; CARLE, J. Global concern about climate change, broad support for limiting emissions. Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, nov. 2015.

STREIMIKIENE, D., et al. “A review of willingness to pay studies for climate change mitigation in the energy sector”. Energies, vol. 12, nº 8, p. 38, abr. 2019.

TJERNSTROM, E.; TIETENBERG, T. “Do differences in attitudes explain differences in national climate change policies?”. Ecological Economics, vol. 65, nº 2, p. 315-324, abr. 2008.

VISCUSI, W. K.; ZECKHAUSER, R. J. “The perception and valuation of the risks of climate change: a rational and behavioral blend”. Climatic Change, vol. 77, nº 1-2, p. 151-177, jul. 2006.

WARD, H. “Liberal democracy and sustainability”. Environmental Politics, vol. 17, nº 3, p. 386-409, jun. 2008.

WURSTER, S. “Comparing ecological sustainability in autocracies and democracies”. Contemporary Politics, 19, nº 1, p. 76-93, mar. 2013.

ZAHRAN, S., et al. “Climate change vulnerability and policy support”. Society & Natural Resources, vol. 19, nº 9, p. 771-789, 2006.

Publicado

2021-05-13

Como Citar

ARMESTO, A. Preocupação com as mudanças climáticas, condições econômicas individuais e priorização do meio ambiente na América Latina. Opinião Pública, Campinas, SP, v. 27, n. 1, p. 1–27, 2021. Disponível em: https://periodicos.sbu.unicamp.br/ojs/index.php/op/article/view/8665619. Acesso em: 19 set. 2021.

Edição

Seção

Artigos