AbstractAim: The primary aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate additional effects of 4-week chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) gel treatments to control Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans counts in children after professional dental prophylaxis. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans counts were also determined to evaluate the secondary effects of anti-plaque treatments on microbial shifts. Methods: Twenty-six children with A. actinomycetemcomitans counts >4 log10/ mL of saliva and/or Quigley-Hein plaque index >3.0 were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to groups GI (placebo gel), GII (0.5% CHX gel), GIII (1% CHX gel), and GIV (2% CHX gel). Four sessions of treatment were performed during 4 weeks after a session of professional dental prophylaxis. Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine viable microorganism counts in non-stimulated whole saliva samples collected at baseline, one week, one month and three months after interruption of treatments. Results: A reduction of all bacterial counts was detected after the 3-month follow-up in all groups. Lower counts of P. gingivalis were achieved from 1 week on after treatments. The 2% CHX concentration seemed to contribute to lower A. actinomycetemcomitans levels and increase S. mutans levels. Conclusions: Professional dental prophylaxis was effective to control salivary levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis and S. mutans. Additional antimicrobial effects, however, were not observed by the combination of professional dental prophylaxis and 4-week chlorhexidine gel treatments.
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