Morse taper implants at different bone levels: a finite element analysis of stress distribution
Keywords:Biomechanics, Bone, Dental implants, Finite element analysis
AbstractAim: To explore the biomechanical effects of the different implantation bone levels of Morse taper implants, employing a finite element analysis (FEA). Methods: Dental implants (TitamaxCM) with 4x13 mm and 4x11 mm, and their respective abutments with 3.5 mm height, simulating a screwed premolar metal-ceramic crown, had their design performed using the software AnsysWorkbench10.0. They were positioned in bone blocks, covered by 2.5 mm thickness of mucosa. The cortical bone was designed with 1.5 mm thickness and the trabecular bone completed the bone block. Four groups were formed: group 11CBL (11 mm implant length on cortical bone level), group 11TBL (11 mm implant length on trabecular bone level), group 13CBL (13mm implant length on cortical bone level) and group 13TBL (13 mm implant length on trabecular bone level). Oblique 200 N loads were applied. Von Mises equivalent stresses in cortical and trabecular bones were evaluated with the same design program. Results: The results were shown qualitatively and quantitatively by standard scales for each type of bone. By the results obtained, it can be suggested that positioning the implant completely in trabecular bone brings harm with respect to the generated stresses. Its implantation in the cortical bone has advantages with respect to better anchoring and locking, reflecting a better dissipation of the stresses along the implant/bone interfaces. In addition, the search for anchoring the implant in its apical region in cortical bone is of great value to improve stabilization and consequently better stress distribution. Conclusions: The implant position slightly below the bone in relation to the bone crest brings advantages as the best long-term predictability with respect to the expected neck bone loss.
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