AbstractAim: To establish a preliminary investigation about the possibility to achieve patency of second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) in mesiobuccal roots of maxillary molars. Methods: Three hundred and five first maxillary molars were examined with direct vision and with magnification. The root canal configurations were classified according to the possibility to achieve patency in MB2 canals. Clearing technique was also performed to illustrate root canal anatomy and verify the presence of extra canals not identified with magnification. Results: The prevalence of MB2 canals detected only with direct vision was 53.4% and the use of the surgical operating microscope increased rate detection to 90.7%. The clearing technique revealed the presence of MB2 canal in 12 more teeth (94.7%). In 49.1% of the localized MB2 canals, it was not possible to achieve patency. Conclusions: The findings of the presented study revealed that it was only possible to achieve patency in 50.9% of the MB2 canals, showing that achieve patency in the MB2 canal is much more challenging than locating them.
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