Longitudinal study of HIV protease mutations in oral tissues of selected patients


  • Peter J. Hickman Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
  • Janet E. Leigh Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
  • Paul L. Fidel. Jr Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
  • Ronald B. Luftig Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center




HIV-1. Protease gene. Mutations


Twenty-nine HIV-1 infected patients from New Orleans were enrolled as a cohort for this study over a four and one half year period. HIV-1 protease gene (pro) sequences were amplified using DNA isolated from oral tissues (gingival cuff, buccal mucosa, tongue, palate) as well as saliva and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PCR products were directly sequenced using a combination of manual and automated methods, and nucleotide sequences were translated using the universal genetic code. Protein sequences obtained from independent amplifications of a particular patient at a given time were consolidated into a single consensus sequence and compared to HIV-1LAI to determine amino acid replacements. The major findings were: 1) each patient had a signature sequence that probably represented the predominant HIV–1 quasispecies; 2) over periods of 19 to 1673 days mutation patterns remained relatively stable within a given patient; and 3) although nearly 40% of the initial nonsynonymous replacements in the protease signature sequences were mutations known to impart resistance to protease inhibitors (PI), over time patients did not accumulate additional PIR mutations


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Author Biographies

Janet E. Leigh, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

Janet is Professor and Chairman of Oral Medicine at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC). She holds a secondary appointment in the LSU School of Medicine and is on faculty at the LSUHSC School of Graduate Studies. She has received numerous awards including the Pfizer Award for Excellence in Research, Education, Patient Care and Community Outreach and the New Orleans City Business Women of the Year award.

Dr. Leigh received her B.D.S. from the University of London, and her D.M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. She is a diplomate of the American Board of Oral Medicine and her clinical practice background includes dental care for medically complex patients in both hospital and private practice.

Her work on the development of innovative oral health-care delivery systems, HIV/AIDS clinical research, work-force issues and rural pediatric initiatives IS funded by HRSA and NIH. She serves on the Louisiana’s Governor’s Commission on HIV and AIDS and as an ambassador with the National Health Service Corps. Following Hurricane Katrina Dr Leigh spearheaded the efforts to re-establish dental services in New Orleans while the LSU Dental School was temporarily relocated to Baton Rouge. Her work focuses on access to care issues and expansion of the dental safety net, funding of research and care delivery, development of clinical practice boundaries in cross-discipline collaboration, development of future healthcare work-force and education of that work-force in a culturally appropriate manner.

Paul L. Fidel. Jr, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

Dr. Fidel received his Bachelor of Science degree in Biology from Allegheny College in Pennsylvania in 1984. He then received his Master of Science and PhD degrees in Microbiology from the University of Oklahoma in 1987 and 1988, respectively. Dr. Fidel conducted postdoctoral training in the lab of Dov Boros in the Department of Immunology and Microbiology at Wayne State University School of Medicine in Detroit. He accepted a position of Assistant Professor in the Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine in 1990. Dr. Fidel came to LSUHSC in 1995 as an Associate Professor in the Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology. He was promoted to Professor in 1999 and named the Carl Baldridge Research Professor and Director of the Center of Excellence in Oral and Craniofacial Biology, Associate Dean for Research in 2001.

Ronald B. Luftig, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

The Luftig laboratory is currently involved in the 
following research: A vaccine has been issued for HIV-1 based on prophylaxis with killed protease defective immature particles Patent with Immune Response Corporation). Biodepuration of Vibrio vulnificus from raw oysters using a unique Mr: 22,000 protein and a sentinel study of HEV in clams captured from Lake Pontchartrain (In collaboration with Drs. William Pelon and Kenneth Johnston, funded by NOAA). Gene therapy using enteric Adenovirus 41 as a gutless vector to deliver genes to intestinal regions (patent issued for Dr. Luftig; collaboration with Dr. Jay Kolls and the Gene Therapy Group).


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How to Cite

Hickman PJ, Leigh JE, Fidel. Jr PL, Luftig RB. Longitudinal study of HIV protease mutations in oral tissues of selected patients. Braz. J. Oral Sci. [Internet]. 2015 Nov. 17 [cited 2023 Feb. 5];3(11):615-8. Available from: https://periodicos.sbu.unicamp.br/ojs/index.php/bjos/article/view/8641777




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