Banner Portal
Immunohistochemical and molecular genetic analysis of p 53 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (scc) in Hospital University Science Malaysia: a preliminary study


SCC. Immunohistochemical. Mutation. PCR

How to Cite

Al-Salihi KA, Ang SL, Azlina A, Farini M, Jaffar H. Immunohistochemical and molecular genetic analysis of p 53 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (scc) in Hospital University Science Malaysia: a preliminary study. Braz. J. Oral Sci. [Internet]. 2016 Sep. 23 [cited 2024 Jun. 16];7(24):1476-83. Available from:


The role of p53 mutation in oral cancer cases has not been studied in Malaysia. This study was designed to focus on over expression of p53 nuclear protein and gene mutation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases in Hospital University Science Malaysia (HUSM). Twenty randomly selected cases previously diagnosed as oral SCC lesions in HUSM since 2002 were included in this study. Patient’s folders were reviewed to study clinical history and tumor staging. Extracted DNA amplified using PCR. Gene sequencing had done to detect genetic mutation. Protein overexpression detected using the Streptavidin-biotin Peroxidase technique. P53 gene mutations, analyzed within exons 5- 8, were observed in 10 out of 20 cases (50%) of oral SCC. The positive nuclear staining by immunohistochemical was observed in 18 cases (18/20, 90%). These data indicate the highly incidence of p53 protein overexpression as well as specific mutations in oral SCC patients in Malaysia. However this preliminary study had been based on analysis of relatively few cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma, so further study require to including large number of cases from different states in Malaysia.


Parkin DM, Freddie Bray MD, Ferlay J, Paola Pisani. Global cancer statistics, 2002, CA Cancer J Clin. 2005; 55: 74–108.

Stewart BW, Kleihues P, editors. Head and neck cancer. World Cancer Report, International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC Press. Lyon. 2003; 83-126, 172-174, 232-6.

Scully C, Newman L, Bagan JV. the role of the dental team in preventing and diagnosing cancer: 2. Oral cancer risk factors. Dent Update. 2005; 32: 261-76.

Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Bouquot JE. Epithelial pathology, squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Maxillof Pathol. 2002; 10: 356-67.

Vogelstein B, Lane D, Levine AJ. Surfing the p53 network. Nature. 2000; 408; 307-10.

Lane DP. p53, guardian of the genome. Nature. 1992; 358: 15- 6.

Soussi T. p53 protein biological and clinical aspects. Encycl Ref Cancer. 2001 Springer; 669-75.

Raybaud-Diogene H, Tetu B, Morency R, Fortin A, Monteil RA. p53 overexpression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: review of the literature. oral oncology. Eur J Cancer. 1996; 32B: 143-9.

Soussi T. The TP 53 website. 2005. Available from: URL: http:/ / [2007 Dec 15].

Mao C, Lu Y, Lai Q, Xia Y, Yang C. Expression of p53 gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma and its relation with clinical and pathological parameters and prognosis of patients. Chin Med Sci J. 1995; 10: 199-203.

Tang R, Wang PF, Wang JY, Hsieh LL. Mutations of p53 gene in human colorectal cancer: distinct frame shifts among populations. Int J Cancer. 2001; 91: 863-8.

Lee WH. Tumour suppressor genes—the hope. FASEB J. 1993; 7: 819.

Yokota J, Sugimura T. Multiple steps in carcinogenesis involving alterations of multiple tumour suppress genes. FASEB J. 1993; 7: 920-5.

Vogelstein B, Kinzier KW. The multistep nature of cancer. Trends Genet. 1993; 9: 138–41.

Harper JW, Adamy GR, Wei N, Keyomarsi K, Elledge SJ. The p21 cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. Cell. 1993; 75: 805–16.

El-Deiry WS, Tokino T, Velculesco VE, Levy DB, Parsons R, Trent JM, et al. WAF1. A potential mediator of p53 tumour suppression. Cell. 1993; 75: 817–25.

Datto MB, Li Y, Panus JF. Transforming growth factor induces the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 through a p53- independent mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1995; 92: 5545–9.

Thomas R, Kaplan L, Reich N, Lane DP, Levine AJ. Characterization of human p53 antigens employing primate specific monoclonal antibodies. Virology. 1983; 131: 502–17.

Iggo R, Gatter K, Bartek J, Lane D, Harris AL. Increased expression of mutant forms of p53 oncogene in primary lung cancer. Lancet. 1990; 335: 675–9.

Warnakulasuriya S. Cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. The genetic basic of human cancer. 2nd ed. Mc Graw Hill; 2002. p. 773-84.

Brennan JA, Boyle JO, Koch WM, Goodman SN, Hruban RH, Eby YJ, et al. Association between cigarette smoking and mutation of the p53 gene in squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. New Engl J Med.1995; 332: 712-7.

Temam S, Flahault A, Perie S, Monceaux G, Coulet F, Callard P, et al. p53 gene status as a predictor of tumor response to induction chemotherapy of patients with loco regionally advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol. 2000: 18; 385-94.

Balz V, Scheckenbach K, Gotte K, Bockmuhl U, Petersen I, Bier H. Is the p53 inactivation frequency in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck underestimated? Cancer Res. 2003; 63: 1188-91.

Boyle JO, Hakim J, Koch W, Vanderriet P, Hruban RH, Roa RA, et al. The incidence of p53 mutations increases with progression of head and neck cancer. Cancer Res. 1993: 53; 4477-80.

van Rensburg EJ, Engelbrecht S, vanHeerden WFP, Kotze MJ, Raubenheimer EJ. Detection of p53 gene mutations in oral squamous cell carcinomas of a black African population sample. Human Mutat. 1998; 11: 39-44.

Partridge M, Li SR, Pateromichelakis S, Francis R, Phillips E, Huang XH, et al. Detection of minimal residual cancer to investigate why oral tumors recur despite seemingly adequate treatment. Clin Cancer Res. 2000; 62: 718-25.

van Oijen MG, Leppers Vd Straat FG, Tilanus MG, Slootweg PJ. The origins of multiple squamous cell carcinomas in the aerodigestive tract. Cancer. 2000; 88: 884-93.

Kropveld A, van Mansfeld ADM, Nabben N, Hordijk GJ, Slootweg PJ. Discordance of p53 status in matched primary tumours and metastases in head and neck. oral oncology. Eur J Cancer. 19963; 2B: 388-93.

Cabelguenne A, Blons H, de Waziers I, Carnot F, Houllier AM, Soussi T, et al. p53 alterations predict tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a prospective series. J Clin Oncol. 2000; 18: 1465- 73.

Nylander K, Schildt EB, Eriksson M, Magnusson A, Mehle C, Roos GA. Non-random deletion in the p53 gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 1996; 73: 1381-6.

Ibrahim SO, Vasstrand EN, Johannessen AC, Idris AM, Magnusson B, Nilsen R, et al. Mutations of the p53 gene in oral squamouscell carcinomas from Sudanese dippers of nitrosamine-rich toombak and non- snuff-dippers from the Sudan and Scandinavia.

Int J Cancer. 1999; 81: 527-34.

Hsieh LL, Wang PF, Chen IH, Liao CT, Wang HM, Chen MC, et al. Characteristics of mutations in the p53 gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with betel quid chewing and cigarette smoking in Taiwanese. Carcinogenesis. 2001; 22: 1497-503.

Yamazaki Y, Chiba I, Hirai A, Notani K, Kashiwazaki H, Tei K, et al. Radioresistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma with p53 DNA contact mutation. Am J Clin Oncol. 2003; 26: 24-9.

Yamazaki Y, Chiba I, Hirai A, Sugiura C, Notani K, Kashiwazaki H, et al. Specific p53 mutations predict poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol. 2003; 39: 163-9.

Kyritsis A P, Bondy M L, Xiao M. Germline p53 gene mutations in subsets of glioma patients. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994; 86: 344– 9.

Plass C, Methylation. Encycl Ref Cancer. 2001 Springer; 561.

Andrew CR, Martin AMF, Alison L, Tina HB, Hainaut P, Janet MT. Integrating mutation data and structural analysis of the p53 tumour-suppressor protein. Human Mutat. 2002; 19: 149- 64.

Shena H, Zhenga Y, Sturgisa EM, Spitza MR, Weia Q. P53 codon 72 polymorphism and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a case-control study. Cancer Letters. 2002; 183: 123–30 39. Cortezzi SS, Provazzi PJ, Sobrinho JS, Prado JCM, Reis PMP, Freitas SEN, et al. Analysis of human papillomavirus prevalence and TP53 polymorphism in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2004; 150: 44-9.

Varley JM, Brammar WJ, Lane DP. Loss of chromosome 17p 13 sequences and mutation of p53 in human breast carcinomas. Oncogene. 1991; 6: 413–2 41. Ahomadegbe JC, Barrois M, Fogel S. High incidence of p53 alterations (mutation, deletion, overexpression) in head and neck primary tumours and metastases; absence of correlation with clinical outcome. Frequent protein overexpression in normal epithelium and in early non-invasive lesions. Oncogene. 1995; 10: 1217–27.

Xu L, Chen Y-T, Huvos AG. Overexpression of p53 in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck without apparent gene mutations. Diagn Mol Pathol. 1994; 3: 83–92 43. Partridge M, Kiguwa S, Emilion G. New insights into p53 protein stabilisation in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Eur J Cancer B Oral Oncol. 1999; 35: 45–55.

Midgeley CA, Lane DP. p53 protein stability in tumour cells is not determined by mutation but is dependent on mdm2 binding. Oncogene. 1997; 15: 1179–89.

Soussi T. p53 protein, biological and clinical aspects. Encycl Ref Cancer. 2001 Springer; 669-75.

Vogelstein B, Lane D, Levine AJ. Surfing the p53 network. Nature. 2000; 408: 307-10.

Keohavonga P, Gaoa WM, Hussam HM, Amal KS, Mona FM. Analysis of p53 mutations in cells taken from paraffin-embedded tissue sections of ductal carcinoma in situ and atypical ductal hyperplasia of the breast. Cancer Letters. 2004; 212: 121–30.

Scully C. Clinical review, ABC of oral health: Oral cancer. Br Med J. 2000; 321: 97-100.

The Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences uses the Creative Commons license (CC), thus preserving the integrity of the articles in an open access environment.


Download data is not yet available.