Aim: This prospective cohort study was to evaluate the independent and mutual effects of socioeconomic, oral health behaviors and individual clinical factors, including enamel hypomineralization, as possible risk factors for increase in caries experience in second primary molar (SPM) over a period of 2-years. Methods: Children (n=216) aged 4-6 years were examined for hypomineralized second primary molar (HSPM) and dental caries in school settings and were recalled every 6 months. The caregivers filled out a semi-structured questionnaire about their socio-demographic and oral health-related behaviors. Data analysis was performed using a hierarchical model with three levels. Multiple analyses were performed at each level and variables with p<0.20 were tested by stepwise multiple Generalized Estimating Equation. Results: At final examination, 33.3% of the children had developed new caries lesions in SPM. The model showed that the number of years of mother’s schooling and the caregiver´s perception about their children’s caries experience played a protective role in the incidence of dental caries. Children who had white spot lesions were more likely to develop new carious lesions in SPM. Children with HSPM showed no higher incidence of caries in their SPM than those without HSPM. Conclusions: Clinical, socioeconomic and behavioral factors impacted on caries development in primary second molars. However, further studies are required to better understand the role of HSPM in caries development in other age groups.
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