Effect of storage time and chlorhexidine addition on the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements
Keywords:Glass ionomer cements. Chlorhexidine. Dental caries. Water storage. Mechanical properties.
AbstractAims: To evaluate the effect of the chlorhexidine (CHX) incorporation and the storage time on the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements (GICs). Methods: The following GICs were evaluated: Ketac Molar Easymix (KM), Vidrion R (VR) and Vitromolar (VM), containing or not CHX. GIC liquid was modified by adding 1.25 % CHX digluconate and then manipulated with the power and placed into the stainless steel cylindrical or bar-shaped molds. GICs specimens were stored into water for 1, 7 and 28 days. After these periods, specimens were submitted to flexural, diametral tensile and compressive strength tests, according to ISO standards. Data from mechanical tests were statistically analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: Overall, the storage time did not influence any of the mechanical properties of the GICs tested. In contrast, the inclusion of CHX reduced significantly these properties for all GICs tested. KM presented the highest values of compressive strength for all storage times. KM + 1.25% CHX had lower compressive strength results than KM, however, it showed similar results when compared to another GICs without CHX. Conclusions: The presence of chlorhexidine, independent of the storage time, interfered on the mechanical characteristics of GIC.
Bonifácio CC, Kleverlaan CJ, Raggio DP, Werner A, De Carvalho RCR, Van Amerongen WE. Physical-mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements indicated for atraumatic restorative treatment. Aust Dent J. 2009 Sep;54(3):233-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2009.01125.x.
Davidovich E, Weiss E, Fuks AB, Beyth N. Surface antibacterial properties of glass ionomer cements used in atraumatic restorative treatment. J Am Dent Assoc. 2007 Oct;138(10):1347-52.
Franca C, Goés MPS, Domingues MC, Colares V. [The use of atraumatic restorative treatment by dentists]. Arq Odontol. 2008;44(1):30-4. Portuguese.
Silva RC, Zuanon ACC, Esberard RR, Candido MSM, Machado JS. In vitro microhardness of glass ionomer cements. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2007 Jan;18(1):139-42.
Silva RC, Zuanon ACC, Spolidorio DMP, Campos JADB. Antibacterial activity of four glass ionomer cements used in atraumatic restorative treatment. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2007 Sep;18(9):1859-62.
Jedrychowski JR, Caputo AA, Kerper S. Antibacterial and mechanical properties of restorative materials combined with chlorhexidines. J Oral Rehabil. 1983 Sep;10(5):373-81.
Silva RC, Zuanon ACC. Surface roughness of glass ionomer cements indicated for atraumatic restorative treatment (ART). Braz Dent J. 2006;17(2):106-9.
Takahashi Y, Imazato S, Kaneshiro AV, Ebisu S, Frencken JE, Tay FR. Antibacterial effects and physical properties of glass-ionomer cements containing chlorhexidine for the ART approach. Dent Mater. 2006 Jul;22(7):647-52.
Frencken JE, Pilot T, Songpaisan Y, Phantumvanit P. Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART): rationale, technique, and development. J Public Health Dent. 1996;56(3 Spec No):135-40; discussion 161-3.
De Castilho AR, Duque C, Negrini T de C, Sacono NT, De Paula AB, De Souza Costa CA, et al. In vitro and in vivo investigation of the biological and mechanical behaviour of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement containing chlorhexidine. J Dent. 2013 Feb;41(2):155-63. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2012.10.014.
Koenraads H, Van Der Kroon G, Frencken JE. Compressive strength ot two newly developed glass-ionomer materials for use with the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach in class II cavities. Dent Mater. 2009 Apr;25(4):551-6. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2008.12.008.
Yip HK, Smales RJ, Ngo HC, Tay FR, Chu FC. Selection of restorative materials for the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a review. Spec Care Dentist. 2001 Nov-Dec;21(6):216-21.
Frencken JE, van’t Hof MA, Taifour D, Al-Zaher I. Effectiveness of ART and traditional amalgam approach in restoring single-surface cavities in posterior teeth of permanent dentitions in school children after 6.3 years. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2007 Jun;35(3):207-14.
Tüzüner T, Kuşgöz A, Er K, Taşdemir T, Buruk K, Kemer B. Antibacterial activity and physical properties of conventional glass-ionomer cements containing chlorhexidine diacetate/cetrimide mixtures. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2011 Feb;23(1):46-55. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8240.2010.00385.x.
Türkün LS, Türkun M, Ertugrul F, Ates M, Brugger S. Long-term antibacterial effects and physical properties of a chlorhexidine-containing glass ionomer cement. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2008;20(1):29-44; discussion 45. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8240.2008.00146.x.
Palmer G, Jones FH, Billington RW, Paerson GJ. Chlorhexidine release from experimental glass ionomercement. Biomaterials. 2004 Oct;25(23):5423-31.
Sanders BJ, Gregory RL, Moore K, Avery DR. Antibacterial and physical properties of resin modified glassionomers combined with chlorhexidine. J Oral Rehabil. 2002 Jun;29(6):553-8.
Yesilyurt C, Er K, Tasdemir T, Buruk K, Celik D. Antibacterial activity and physical properties of glass-ionomer cements containing antibiotics. Oper Dent. 2009 Jan-Feb;34(1):18-23. doi: 10.2341/08-30.
Hildebrandt GH. Effect of repeated treatment with sustained-release chlorhexidine mouth guards on salivary levels of mutans streptococci. Caries Res. 1996;30(6):445-53.
Emilson CG. Susceptibility of various microorganisms to chlorhexidine. Scand J Dent Res. 1977 May;85(4):255-65.
McKenzie MA, Linden RW, Nicholson JW. The physical properties of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer dental cements stored in saliva, proprietary acidic beverages,saline and water. Biomaterials. 2003 Oct;24(22):4063-9.
Zoergiebel J, Ilie N. Evaluation of a conventional glass ionomer cement with new zinc formulation: effect of coating, aging and storage agents. Clin Oral Investig. 2013 Mar;17(2):619-26. doi: 10.1007/s00784-012-0733-1.
Shiozawa M, Takahashi H, Iwasaki N. Fluoride release and mechanical properties after 1-year water storage of recent restorative glass ionomer cements. Clin Oral Investig. 2014 May;18(4):1053-60. doi:10.1007/s00784-013-1074-4.
Gemalmaz D, Yoruc B, Ozcan M, Alkumru HN. Effect of early water contact on solubility of glass ionomer luting cements. J Prosthet Dent. 1998 Oct;80(4):474-8.
Marti LM, Becci AC, Spolidorio DM, Brighenti FL, Giro EM, Zuanon AC. Incorporation of chlorhexidine gluconate or diacetate into a glass-ionomer cement: porosity, surface roughness, and anti-biofilm activity. Am J Dent. 2014 Dec;27(6):318-22.
Mittal S, Soni H, Sharma DK, Mittal K, Pathania V, Sharma S. Comparative evaluation of the antibacterial and physical properties of conventional glass ionomer cement containing chlorhexidine and antibiotics. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2015 Jul-Aug;5(4):268-75. doi: 10.4103/2231-0762.161754.
Prosser HJ, Jerome SM, Wilson AD. The effect of additives on the setting properties of a glass-ionomer cement. J Dent Res. 1982 Oct;61(10):1195-8.
Deepalakshmi M, Poorni S, Miglani R, Rajamani I, Ramachandran S. Evaluation of the antibacterial and physical properties of glass ionomer cements containing chlorhexidine and cetrimide: an in-vitro study. Indian J Dent Res. 2010 Oct-Dec;21(4):552-6. doi: 10.4103/0970-9290.74217.
Marti LM, Mata Md, Ferraz-Santos B, Azevedo ER, Giro EM, Zuanon AC. Addition of chlorhexidine gluconate to a glass ionomer cement: a study on mechanical, physical and antibacterial properties. Braz Dent J. 2014 Jan-Feb;25(1):33-7.
Ahluwalia P, Chopra S, Thomas AM. Strength characteristics and marginal sealing ability of chlorhexidine-modified glass ionomer cement: an in vitro study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2012 Jan-Mar;30(1):41-6. doi: 10.4103/0970-4388.95580.
Jaidka S, Somani R, Singh DJ, Shafat S. Comparative evaluation of compressive strength, diametral tensile strength and shear bond strength of GIC type IX, chlorhexidine-incorporated GIC and triclosan-incorporated GIC: An in vitro study. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2016 Apr;6(Suppl 1):S64-9. doi: 10.4103/2231-0762.181188.
Algera TJ, Kleverlaan CJ, Prahl-Andersen B, Feilzer AJ. The influence of environmental conditions on the material properties of setting glass-ionomer cements. Dent Mater. 2006 Sep; 22(9):852-6.
De Barra E, Hill RG. Influence of glass composition on the properties of glass polyalkenoate cements. Part III: influence of fluorite content. Biomaterials. 2000 Mar; 21(6):563-9.
Shiozawa M, Takahashi H, Iwasaki N. Fluoride release and mechanical properties after 1-year water storage of recent restorative glass ionomer cements. Clin Oral Investig. 2014 May;18(4):1053-60. doi: 10.1007/s00784-013-1074-4.
How to Cite
The Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences uses the Creative Commons license (CC), thus preserving the integrity of the articles in an open access environment.