Oral rehabilitation with mandibular single-implant overdentures (SIO) has been characterized as a solution to improve retention and stability of conventional complete dentures (CD). Among the benefits of this therapy, it can be mentioned minimally invasive surgery, simple prosthetic technique, better retention, and significantly reduced costs. However, the application of this protocol in daily clinic is still not widespread. Aim: Thus, this study aimed to perform a literature review to address the clinical characteristics of this rehabilitation, when compared to two-implant mandibular overdentures and CD. Methods: For this, a search was conducted in the PubMed database, considering articles published in English language, without date limitation. Results: It was found 243 manuscripts, of which 20 were compatible with the aim of this study after title/abstract reading. The selected papers focused on masticatory muscles function, satisfaction levels and self-reported quality of life, as well as surgical and prosthetic outcomes, such as maintenance, repair and implant failure rates. All evaluated manuscripts showed similar masticatory function and patient's satisfaction with SIO and two-implant overdenture, while results for a SIO were greater when compared to rehabilitations with CD. In addition, SIO have proven to do not damage the implant, being implant loss close to zero. However, the prosthesis fracture adjacent to the implant was a recurrent clinical outcome, which requires further studies to solve this impairment. Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that SIO represents an alternative treatment for frail elders or low-income patients, leading to higher masticatory function, as well as improved quality of life.
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