In vitro tooth whitening effectiveness of whitening mouth rinses




Color, Mouthwashes, Nonprescription drugs, Tooth bleaching, Tooth bleaching agents


Regardless of the extensive availability of mouth rinses that claim to whiten teeth, evidence of achievement of such effect is still missing. Aim: Therefore, this study assessed in vitro the whitening effectiveness of whitening mouth rinses. Methods: Sixty intact bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and had their buccal surface flattened and polished. Then, the specimens were randomly allocated to three conventional (Colgate Plax, Cepacol and Listerine Cool Mint) and three whitening mouth rinse groups (Colgate Luminous White, Cepacol Whitening and Listerine Whitening Extreme) (n=10). Following, the specimens were immersed twice a day in the mouth rinses for one minute for 28 days. In between each immersion period, the specimens remained in artificial saliva at 37oC. Color was measured at baseline, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days using a portable spectrophotometer (Easyshade, Vita Zahnfabrik, Germany) with a 6 mm of diameter probe. Color change was analyzed considering the parameters of ∆L*, ∆a*, ∆b* and, ultimately, ∆E*. The whitening efficacy of the mouth rinses was analyzed using the Whiteness Index for Dentistry (WID). Data of ∆s was analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results: The type of mouth rinse affected significantly all the ∆ parameters (p<0.05). A non-whitening (conventional) mouth rinse produced the highest ΔE*, followed by the three whitening mouth rinses. The application time also affected ΔE* (p<0.05), with emphasis on the third week of treatment. Only the hydrogen peroxide-containing mouth rinse (Listerine Whitening Extreme) presented a whitening effect, with an increasing trend over time. Conclusion: Although the overall color change was not different when comparing conventional and whitening mouth rinses, the hydrogen peroxide-containing whitening mouth rinse produces an increasing whitening trend over time. Not every mouth rinse that claims to whiten teeth produces the desired effect.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biographies

Ana Paula Morona Rodrigues, Private practice

Private practice, Chapecó, SC, Brazil.

Mariele Cristina Klein, Private practice

Private practice, Chapecó, SC, Brazil.

Mauro Antonio Dall Agnol, Community University of Chapecó Region

School of Dentistry, Community University of Chapecó Region (Unochapecó), Chapecó, SC, Brazil.

Sinval Adalberto Rodrigues-Junior, Community University of Chapecó Region

Health Sciences Post-Graduate Program, Community University of Chapecó Region (Unochapecó), Chapecó, SC, Brazil.


American Dental Association. Council on Scientific Affairs. Tooth whitening/bleaching: treatment considerations for dentists and their patients. Chicago: ADA. 2009 Sept [cited 2019 nov 25]. 12p. Available from:

Demarco FF, Meireles SS, Masotti AS. Over-the-counter whitening agents : Critical assessment of the OTC products for home-use bleaching. Braz Oral Res. 2009;23(Spec Iss 1):64-70. doi: 10.1590/S1806-83242009000500010. DOI:

Kwon SR, Wertz PW. Review of the mechanism of tooth whitening. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2015 Sep-Oct;27(5):240-57. doi: 10.1111/jerd.12152. DOI:

Serraglio CR, Zanella L, Dalla-Vecchia KB, Rodrigues-Junior SA. Efficacy and safety of over-the-counter whitening strips as compared to home-whitening with 10 % carbamide peroxide gel—systematic review of RCTs and metanalysis. Clin Oral Investig. 2016 Jan;20(1):1-14. doi: 10.1007/s00784-015-1547-8. DOI:

Fasanaro TS. Bleaching Teeth: History, Chemicals, and Methods Used for Common Tooth Discolorations. J Esthet Dent. 1992 May-Jun;4(3):71-8. DOI:

Torres C, Perote L, Gutierrez N, Pucci C, Borges A. Efficacy of Mouth Rinses and Toothpaste on Tooth Whitening. Oper Dent. 2013 Jan-Feb;38(1):57-62. doi: 10.2341/11-360-L. DOI:

Meireles SS, Santos IS, Bona A Della, Demarco FF. A double-blind randomized clinical trial of two carbamide peroxide tooth bleaching agents: 2-year follow-up. J Dent. 2010 Dec;38(12):956-63. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2010.08.003. DOI:

Lima FG, Rotta TA, Penso S, Meireles SS, Demarco FF. In vitro evaluation of the whitening effect of mouth rinses containing hydrogen peroxide. Braz Oral Res. 2012 May-Jun;26(3):269-74. DOI:

Karadas M, Duymus ZY. In vitro evaluation of the efficacy of different over-the-counter products on tooth whitening. Braz Dent J. 2015 Jul-Aug;26(4):373-7. doi: 10.1590/0103-64402013x0111. DOI:

Nahsan FPS, Reis MJO, Francisconi-dos-Rios LF, Leão L, Paranhos LR. Effectiveness of whitening mouthwashes on tooth color: An in vitro study. Gen Dent. 2018 Mar-Apr;66(2):e7-e10.

Santos PA. [Infuence of the light source on color stability of a compoiste resin. Effect of storage medium and storage times] [thesis]. Araraquara: São Paulo State University "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"; 2008. Portuguese.

Pérez MDM, Ghinea R, Rivas MJ, Yebra A, Ionescu AM, Paravina RD, et al. Development of a customized whiteness index for dentistry based on CIELAB color space. Dent Mater. 2016 Mar;32(3):461-7. doi: 10.1016/ DOI:

CIE. Commission Internationale de I’Eclairage. Recommendations on uniform color spaces-color difference equations, psyhometric color terms. Supplement No. 2 to CIE Publication No. 15 (E.-1.3. 1) 1971/(TC-1.3.). 1978.

Joiner A. Whitening toothpastes: A review of the literature. J Dent. 2010;38 Suppl 2:e17-24. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2010.05.017. DOI:

Oliveira J, Sarlo R, Bresciani E, Caneppele T. Whitening Efficacy of Whitening Mouth Rinses Used Alone or in Conjunction With Carbamide Peroxide Home Whitening. Oper Dent. 2017 May/Jun;42(3):319-26. doi: 10.2341/15-361-L. DOI:

Chemin K, Rezende M, Loguercio A, Reis A, Kossatz S. Effectiveness of and Dental Sensitivity to At-home Bleaching With 4% and 10% Hydrogen Peroxide: A Randomized, Triple-blind Clinical Trial. Oper Dent. 2018 May/Jun;43(3):232-40. doi: 10.2341/16-260-C. DOI:

Meireles SS, Demarco FF, Santos IS, Dumith SC, Bona A Della. Validation and Reliability of Visual Assessment with a Shade Guide for Tooth-Color Classification. Oper Dent. 2008 Mar-Apr;33(2):121-6. doi: 10.2341/07-71. DOI:




How to Cite

Rodrigues APM, Klein MC, Dall Agnol MA, Rodrigues-Junior SA. In vitro tooth whitening effectiveness of whitening mouth rinses. Braz. J. Oral Sci. [Internet]. 2020 May 5 [cited 2022 Oct. 6];19:e206779. Available from:

Most read articles by the same author(s)