Effect of diphenyliodonium hexafluorphosphate in the yellowing and properties of experimental resin cements
Aim: The yellowing effect is undesirable and can occur in the dental restoration margins when light-cured resin cements containing camphorquinone as photoinitiator is used. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of diphenyliodonium hexafluorphosphate (DPI) in photoinitiator systems that contained different concentrations of camphorquinone (CQ) and dimethylamino ethyl benzoate (EDAB) on resin cements. Methods: A base (1:1) of bisphenol A diglycidyl methacrylate (BisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) was obtained, and 60wt% of glass fillers was added. Eight formulations were obtained: RC1 (0.5mol% CQ / 1mol% EDAB), RC2 (0.5mol% CQ / 2mol% EDAB), RC3 (1mol% CQ / 1mol% EDAB), RC4 (1mol% CQ / 2mol% EDAB), and RC5 to RC8, which contained the same bases plus 0.5mol% DPI. Experimental resin cements were evaluated by the degree of conversion (DC), L*a*b* color analysis, water sorption (WS) and solubility (S), flexural strength, and Elastic Modulus. The data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA, Tukey’s and Mann-Whitney tests (α = 0.05). Results: The combination of DPI and 0.5mol% CQ increased DC in RC6 and L* in RC5 without increasing the WS and a* b* values. CQ at 1mol% showed higher values of b* and lower values of a*, except for RC3. Groups with 2mol% EDAB showed higher DC. Conclusion: The addition of DPI reduces CQ, generating a decreased yellowing effect, while maintaining adequate properties in the resin cements, especially with 2mol% EDAB.
2. Jang Y, Ferracane JL, Pfeifer CS, Park JW, Shin Y, Roh BD. Effect of Insufficient Light Exposure on Polymerization Kinetics of Conventional and Self-adhesive Dual-cure Resin Cements. Oper Dent. 2017 Jan/Feb;42(1):E1-E9. doi: 10.2341/15-278-L.
3. Archegas LR, Freire A, Vieira S, Caldas DB, Souza EM. Colour stability and opacity of resin cements and flowable composites for ceramic veneer luting after accelerated ageing. J Dent. 2011 Nov;39(11):804-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2011.08.013.
4. Stansbury JW. Curing dental resins and composites by photopolymerization. J Esthet Dent. 2000;12(6):300-8.
5. Ilie N, Hickel R. Can CQ be completely replaced by alternative initiators in dental adhesives? Dent Mater J. 2008 Mar;27(2):221-8.
6. Brandt WC, Tomaselli L de O, Correr-Sobrinho L, Sinhoreti MA. Can phenyl-propanedione influence Knoop hardness, rate of polymerization and bond strength of resin composite restorations? J Dent. 2011 Jun;39(6):438-47. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2011.03.009.
7. de Oliveira DC, Rocha MG, Gatti A, Correr AB, Ferracane JL, Sinhoreti MA. Effect of different photoinitiators and reducing agents on cure efficiency and color stability of resin-based composites using different LED wavelengths. J Dent. 2015 Dec;43(12):1565-72. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2015.08.015.
8. Emami N, Söderholm KJ. Influence of light-curing procedures and photo-initiator/co-initiator composition on the degree of conversion of light-curing resins. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2005 Jan;16(1):47-52.
9. Gonçalves LS, Morães RR, Ogliari FA, Boaro L, Braga RR, Consani S. Improved polymerization efficiency of methacrylate-based cements containing an iodonium salt. Dent Mater. 2013 Dec;29(12):1251-5. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2013.09.010.
10. Ogliari FA, Ely C, Petzhold CL, Demarco FF, Piva E. Onium salt improves the polymerization kinetics in an experimental dental adhesive resin. J Dent. 2007 Jul;35(7):583-7.
11. Crivello JV, Lam JH. Diaryliodonium salts – new class of photo-initiators for cationic polymerization. Macromolecules. 1977 Nov;10(6):1307-15.
12. Schneider LF, Cavalcante LM, Consani S, Ferracane JL. Effect of co-initiator ratio on the polymer properties of experimental resin composites formulated with camphorquinone and phenyl-propanedione. Dent Mater. 2009 Mar;25(3):369-75. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2008.08.003.
13. Guo X, Wang Y, Spencer P, Ye Q, Yao X. Effects of water content and initiator composition on photopolymerization of a model BisGMA/HEMA resin. Dent Mater. 2008 Jun; 24(6):824-31.
14. Andrade KM, Palialol AR, Lancellotti AC, Aguiar FH, Watts DC, Gonçalves LS, et al. Effect of diphenyliodonium hexafluorphosphate on resin cements containing different concentrations of ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate as co-initiators. Dent Mater. 2016 Jun;32(6):749-55. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2016.03.014.
15. Albuquerque PP, Bertolo ML, Cavalcante LM, Pfeifer C, Schneider LF. Degree of conversion, depth of cure, and color stability of experimental dental composite formulated with camphorquinone and phenanthrenequinone photoinitiators. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2015 Mar-Apr;27 Suppl 1:S49-57. doi: 10.1111/jerd.12131.
16. Furuse AY, Mondelli J, Watts DC. Network structures of Bis-MA/TEGDMA resins differ in DC, shrinkage-strain, hardness and optical properties as a function of reducing agent. Dent Mater. 2011 May;27(5):497-506. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2011.02.007.
17. Asmusen S, Arenas G, Cook WD, Vallo C. Photobleaching of camphorquinone during polymerization of dimethacrylate-based resins. Dent Mater. 2009 Dec;25(12):1603-11. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2009.08.010.
18. Ferracane JL. Resin composite--state of the art. Dent Mater. 2011 Jan;27(1):29-38. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2010.10.020.
19. Sideridou I, Tserki V, Papanastasiou G. Study of water sorption, solubility and modulus of elasticity of light-cured dimethacrylate-based dental resins. Biomaterials. 2003 Feb;24(4):655-65.
20. Ferracane JL. Hygroscopic and hydrolytic effects in dental polymer networks. Dent Mater. 2006 Mar;22(3):211-22.
21. Mese A, Burrow MF, Tyas MJ. Sorption and solubility of luting cements in different solutions. Dent Mater J. 2008 Sep;27(5):702-9.
22. Janda R, Roulet JF, Latta M, Rüttermann S. Water sorption and solubility of contemporary resin-based filling materials. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2007 Aug;82(2):545-51.
23. Kim KH, Ong JL, Okuno O. The effect of filler loading and morphology on the mechanical properties of contemporary composites. J Prosthet Dent. 2002 Jun;87(6):642-9.
24. Gonçalves F, Azevedo CL, Ferracane JL, Braga RR. BisGMA/TEGDMA ratio and filler content effects on shrinkage stress. Dent Mater. 2011 Jun;27(6):520-6. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2011.01.007.
The Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences uses the Creative Commons license (CC), thus preserving the integrity of the articles in an open access environment.