Economical treatment-related burden assessment of maxillofacial trauma among Ukrainians patients




Maxillofacial injuries, Treatment outcome, Cost of illness, Hospitalization


Aim: Quantitative evaluation of prognostic correspondence between initial maxillofacial traumatic injury assessed by facial injury severity score and maxillofacial injury severity score, treatment cost and duration of hospitalization among Ukrainian patients. Methods: Design of present study was retrospective and based on the medical data of patients hospitalized with signs of maxillofacial trauma. Quantitative assessment of maxillofacial trauma was held with the use of facial injury severity score (FISS) and maxillofacial injury severity score (MFISS). Average treatment cost and hospitalization duration were used as coordinative criteria for economical treatmentrelated burden verification. Results: Levels of correlation between FISS, treatment charges and hospitalization duration were r=0.69 (р<0.05) and r=0.67 (р<0.05) respectively, while analogical correlations for MFISS were 0.74 (р<0.05) and 0.69 respectively (р<0.05). Statistical correspondence between FISS and MFISS scores among study sample reached r=0.71 (р<0.05). Cases with milder maxillofacial trauma types, characterized with initial lower levels of FISS and MFISS scores, demonstrated greater degree of FISS-to-MFISS inter-relation compare to cases with severe maxillofacial trauma. Conclusion: Even though FISS and MFISS scores both demonstrated reliable levels of correlation with hospitalization duration and cost of dental rehabilitation after maxillofacial trauma injury, but MFISS approach characterized by prognostically greater level of statistical relationship with economically related treatment derivates. Moreover, differentiation capabilities of MFISS is relative greater than FISS, since independent grading of separate functional disabilities becomes possible.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biographies

Pavlo Brekhlichuk, Uzhhorod National University

Head of the Department of Surgical Dentistry, Maxillofacial Surgery and Oncostomatology, Uzhhorod National University, Ukraine.

Myroslav Goncharuk-Khomyn, Uzhhorod National University

Head of Scientific and Research Centre of Forensic Odontology, Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Uzhhorod National University, Ukraine.


Chen C, Zhang Y, An JG, He Y, Gong X. Comparative study of four maxillofacial trauma scoring systems and expert score. J Oral Maxillofac Surgy. 2014;72(11):2212-20. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2014.04.035.

Ramalingam S. Role of maxillofacial trauma scoring systems in determining the economic burden to maxillofacial trauma patients in India. Journal of international oral health: JIOH. 2015;7(4):38.

Teusner D, Smith V, Gnanamanickam E, Brennan D. Examining dental expenditure and dental insurance accounting for probability of incurring expenses. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2017;45(2):101-11. doi: 10.1111/cdoe.12264.

Golkari A, Vossoughi M, Mohammadi M, Behbahanirad A, Bakhtiar M. The association between dental insurance coverage, socio-economic status and use of dental care in adolescents. J Health Sci Surveil System. 2018;6(3):149-54. doi: 10.30476/JHSSS.2019.81462.1001.

Chung SH. Reformation of the health insurance system: an urgent need for dental research. J Korean Acad Oral Health. 2017;41(4):229-30. Doi: 10.11149/jkaoh.2017.41.4.229.

Zhang J, Zhang Y, El-Maaytah M, Ma L, Liu L, Zhou LD. Maxillofacial Injury Severity Score: proposal of a new scoring system. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;35(2):109-14. doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2005.06.019.

Sahni V. Maxillofacial trauma scoring systems. Injury. 2016;47(7):1388-92. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2016.02.001.

Sen P, Ross N, Rogers S. Recovering maxillofacial trauma patients: the hidden problems. J Wound Care. 2001;10(3):53-57. doi:

Bagheri SC, Dierks EJ, Kademani D, Holmgren E, Bell RB, Hommer L, et al. Application of a facial injury severity scale in craniomaxillofacial trauma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64(3):408-14. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2005.11.013.

Bangun K, Kesuma AD. Evaluation of facial trauma severity in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital using FISS scoring system. J Plastik Rekonstr. 2012;1(2):162-5.

Ramalingam S, Nooh N, Neelakandan R. The impact of maxillofacial trauma scoring systems in predicting maxillofacial injury severity in developing countries. International J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;42(10):1232-3. doi: doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2013.07.214.

Giriyan K, Kamath R, D'Souza B, Kamath S, Bhat SR. Maxillofacial injuries and its implications on economic burden in trauma victims. Medico-Legal Update. 2019;19(1):76-81. doi: 10.5958/0974-1283.2019.00016.1.

Boffano P, Roccia F, Zavattero E, Dediol E, Uglešić V, Kovačič Ž, et al. European Maxillofacial Trauma (EURMAT) project: a multicentre and prospective study. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2015;43(1):62-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2014.10.011.

Van Spall HG, Toren A, Kiss A, Fowler RA. Eligibility criteria of randomized controlled trials published in high-impact general medical journals: a systematic sampling review. JAMA. 2007;297(11):1233-40. doi: 10.1001/jama.297.11.1233.

General Assembly of the World Medical Association. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. J Am Col Dent. 2014;81(3):14.

Hannigan A, Lynch CD. Statistical methodology in oral and dental research: pitfalls and recommendations. J Dent. 2013;41(5):385-92. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2013.02.013.

Shintani A. Primer of statistics in dental research: Part I. J Prosthod Res. 2014;58(1):11-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jpor.2013.12.006.

Giavarina D. Understanding bland altman analysis. Biochemia Med. 2015;25(2):141-51. doi: 10.11613/BM.2015.015

Doğan NÖ. Bland-Altman analysis: A paradigm to understand correlation and agreement. Turkish J Emerg Med. 2018;18(4):139-41. doi: 10.1016/j.tjem.2018.09.001

Siber S, Matijević M, Sikora M, Leović D, Mumlek I, Macan D. Assessment of oro-maxillofacial trauma according to gender, age, cause and type of the injury. Acta Stomatol Croatica. 2015;49(4):340-7. doi: 10.15644/asc49/4/10

x Maliska MCDS, Borba M, Asprino L, De Moraes M, Moreira RWF. Oral and maxillofacial surgery-Helmet and maxillofacial trauma: a 10-year retrospective study. Braz J Oral Sci. 2012;11(2):125-9. doi: 10.20396/bjos.v11i2.8641434

Galvão-Moreira LV, Cantanhede ALC, de Sousa Neto AC, da Cruz MCFN. Factors affecting hospital discharge in maxillofacial trauma patients: a retrospective study. Braz J Oral Sci. 2017;16:1-10. doi: 10.20396/bjos.v16i0.8650491

Bocchialini G, Castellani A. Facial trauma: a retrospective study of 1262 patients. Annals Mxillofac Surg. 2019;9(1):135. doi: 10.4103/ams.ams_51_19

Siregar DF, Buchari FB, Tarigan UA, Lelo A. Correlation of facial injury severity scale (FISS) with length of stay, the need for surgery and the involvement of other specialists in maxillofacial trauma patients at H. Adam Malik General Hospital Medan. Global J Res Anal. 2019;8(11):8-10. doi: 10.36106/gjra

Aita TG, Stabile CLP, Garbelini CCD, Stabile GAV. Can a facial injury severity scale be used to predict the need for surgical intervention and time of hospitalization? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018;76(6):1280-e1. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2018.02.002.

Suwal R. Analysis of Mid-face Fractures using MFISS and FISS Scoring Systems. J Nepal Dent Assoc. 2018;18(1):21-9.

Canzi G, De Ponti E, Novelli G, Mazzoleni F, Chiara O, Bozzetti A, et al. The CFI score: Validation of a new comprehensive severity scoring system for facial injuries. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2019;47(3):377-82. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2019.01.004.

Canzi G, De Ponti E, Fossati C, Novelli G, Cimbanassi S, Bozzetti A, et al. Understanding the relevance of comprehensive facial injury (CFI) score: Statistical analysis of overall surgical time and length of stay outcomes. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2019;47(9):1456-63. doi: doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2019.07.005.

Goncharuk-Khomyn M, Andrii K. Evaluation of peri-implant bone reduction levels from superimposition perspective: pilot study among Ukrainian implantology practice. Pesq Bras Odontoped Clin Integr. 2018;18(1):3856. doi: 10.4034/PBOCI.2018.181.10.




How to Cite

Brekhlichuk P, Goncharuk-Khomyn M. Economical treatment-related burden assessment of maxillofacial trauma among Ukrainians patients. Braz. J. Oral Sci. [Internet]. 2020 Dec. 7 [cited 2022 May 26];19:e209930. Available from: