Banner Portal
Knowledge and clinical practices of orthodontists regarding the treatment of patients with AIDS


Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes

How to Cite

Rocha ES, Vedovello Filho M, Venezian GC, Menezes CC de, Vedovello SAS. Knowledge and clinical practices of orthodontists regarding the treatment of patients with AIDS: A nationwide study. Braz. J. Oral Sci. [Internet]. 2021 Feb. 8 [cited 2024 May 28];20(00):e210699. Available from:


Aim: To evaluate orthodontists’ knowledge and clinical practices regarding the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods: Cross-sectional study performed with 655 Brazilian orthodontists based on a previously calculated sample size. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to orthodontists to collect information on knowledge and clinical conduct regarding the care of patients with HIV/AIDS. The study evaluated the awareness of possible risk factors for contamination, oral manifestations of HIV, need for more information on the care of HIV-positive patients, whether orthodontic treatment is indicated in HIV-positive patients, and whether they had knowingly performed orthodontic treatment in HIV-positive patients. Simple regression models were adjusted, and crude Odds Ratios estimated the associations with 95% confidence intervals. The variables with P < 0.20 in the crude analysis were tested in multiple logistic regression models, and those with P ≤ 0.05 were maintained in the final model. Magnitudes were estimated by adjusted Odds Ratios values, with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Orthodontists who were aware of the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS, those having work experience of more than 20 years, and those who believed that orthodontic treatment could be indicated for these patients were 3.30 (1.79-6.10), 2.74 (1.36-5.52) and 1.92 (1.13-3.24) times more likely to perform orthodontic treatment in HIV-positive patients, respectively. Most orthodontists (92.9%) reported they needed to obtain more information about orthodontic care in patients with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Although orthodontists reported feeling able and qualified to provide dental care to patients with HIV/AIDS, gaps in their knowledge need to be addressed with further training.


Verma M, Erwin S, Abedi V, Hontecillas R, Hoops S, Leber A, et al. Modeling the Mechanisms by Which HIV-Associated Immunosuppression Influences HPV Persistence at the Oral Mucosa. PLoS One. 2017;12(1):e0168133. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0168133.

Rostamzadeh M, Afkhamzadeh A, Afrooz S, Mohamadi K, Rasouli MA. Dentists' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding Hepatitis B and C and HIV/AIDS in Sanandaj, Iran. BMC Oral Health. 2018;18(1):220. doi: 10.1186/s12903-018-0685-1.

Pereira GFM, Pimenta MC, Giozza SP, Caruso AR, Bastos FI, Guimarães MDC. HIV/AIDS, STIs and viral hepatites in Brazil epidemiological trends. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2019;22(Suppl 1):e190001. doi: 10.1590/1980-549720190001.supl.1.

Silva-Boghossian CM, Boscardini BAB, Pereira CM, Moreira EJL. Evaluation of oral care protocols practice by dentists in Rio de Janeiro towards HIV/AIDS individuals. BMC Oral Health. 2020;20(1):13. doi: 10.1186/s12903-020-0999-7.

Amaral RS, Carvalho STRF, Silva FMAM, Dias RS. [HIV/AIDS and socio comportamental characteristics of young adolescents and adults]. Rev Pesq Saude. 2017;18(2):108-13. Portuguese.

Ministry of Health of Brazil. Secretariat for Epidemiological Surveillance. Department of STD, AIDS and Viral Hepatitis. Epidemiological bulletin: AIDS / STD. Brasília: Ministry of Health; 2017. Portuguese.

Aggarwal A, Panat SR. Knowledge, attitude, and behavior in managing patients with HIV/AIDS among a group of Indian dental students. J Dent Educ. 2013;77(9):1209-17.

Pollack HA, Pereyra M, Parish CL, Abel S, Messinger S, Singer R, et al. Dentists' willingness to provide expanded HIV screening in oral health care settings: results from a nationally representative survey. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(5):872-80. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301700.

Parish CL, Siegel K, Liguori T, Abel SN, Pollack HA, Pereyra MR, et al. HIV testing in the dental setting: perspectives and practices of experienced dental professionals. AIDS Care. 2018;30(3):347-52. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2017.1367087.

Azodo CC, Ehizele AO, Umoh A, Okechukwu R. Nigerian dental therapy students' knowledge, attitude, and willingness to care for patients with HIV. J Dent Educ. 2013;77(6):793-800.

Wang L, Santella AJ, Huang R, Kou L, You L, Zhang X, et al. Knowledge of HIV and willingness to conduct oral rapid HIV testing among dentists in Xi'an China. PLoS One. 2015;10(3): e0119274. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119274.

Agarwal J, Agarwal RS, Shrivastava A, Shrivastava S. Analysis of information, impact and control of HIV amongst Dental Professionals of Central India. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015 Jul;9(7):ZC80-4. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/14300.6236.

McCarthy GM, Mamandras AH, MacDonald JK. Infection control in the orthodontic office in Canada. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1997;112(3):275-81. doi: 10.1016/S0889-5406(97)70256-7.

Groenewegen H, Bierman WFW, Delli K, Dijkstra PU, Nesse W, Vissink A, et al. Severe periodontitis is more common in HIV- infected patients. J Infect. 2019;78(3):171-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2018.11.008.

Jamilian A, Kiaee B, Sanayei S, Khosravi S, Perillo L. Orthodontic treatment of malocclusion and its impact on oral health-related quality of life. Open Dent J. 2016 May; 10:236-41. doi: 10.2174/1874210601610010236.

Dos Santos PR, Meneghim MC, Ambrosano GM, Vedovello Filho M, Vedovello SA. Influence of quality of life, self-perception, and self-esteem on orthodontic treatment need. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2017;151(1):143-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.06.028.

Lambert RF, Orrell C, Haberer JE. "It was pain. That's it. It was pain." Lack of oral health care among otherwise healthy young adults living with HIV in South Africa: a qualitative study. PLoS One. 2017;12(12): e0188353. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188353.

Sun F, Ahmed A, Wang L, Dong M, Niu W. Comparison of oral microbiota in orthodontic patients and healthy individuals, Microb Patog. 2018 Oct;123:473-7. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2018.08.011.

Shukla C, Maurya R, Singh V, Tijare M. Evaluation of role of fixed orthodontics in changing oral ecological flora of opportunistic microbes in children and adolescent. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2017;35(1):34-40. doi: 10.4103/0970-4388.199226.

Woo J, Anderson R, Maguire B, Gerbert B. Compliance with infection control procedures among California orthodontists. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1992;102(1):68-75. doi: 10.1016/0889-5406(92)70016-4.

von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP; STROBE Initiative. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Oct;147(8):573-7. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-147-8-200710160-00010.

Oberoi SS, Sharma N, Mohanty V, Marya C, Rekhi A, Oberoi A. Knowledge and Attitude of Faculty Members Working in Dental Institutions towards the Dental Treatment of Patients with HIV/AIDS. Int Sch Res Notices. 2014; 2014:429692. doi: 10.1155/2014/429692.

Dávila ME, Gil M. [Oral manifestations and dental caries in children exposed to human immunodeficiency virus]. Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) 2011;13(5):833-43. doi: 10.1590/s0124-00642011000500012. Spanish.

Thanyasrisung P, Kesakomol P, Pipattanagovit P, Youngnak-Piboonratanakit P, Pitiphat W, Matangkasombut O. Oral Candida carriage and immune status in Thai human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. J Med Microbiol. 2014;63(5):753-9. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.069773-0.

Gruffaz M, Zhang T, Marshall V, Gonçalves P, Ramaswami R, Labo N, et al. Signatures of oral microbiome in HIV-infected individuals with oral Kaposi's sarcoma and cell-associated KSHV DNA. PLoS Pathog. 2020 Jan 17;16(1):e1008114. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008114.

Hutchinson MK, Van Devanter N, Phelan J, Malamud D, Vernillo A, Combellick J, et al. Feasibility of implementing rapid oral fluid HIV testing in an urban University Dental Clinic: a qualitative study. BMC Oral Health. 2012; 12:11. doi: 10.1186/1472-6831-12-11.

Santella AJ, Schlub TE, Schifter M, Tolani M, Hillman RJ. Australian dentists' perspectives on rapid HIV testing. Aust Dent J. 2016;61(3):270-6. doi: 10.1111/adj.12371.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2021 Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences


Download data is not yet available.