Are stress and symptoms of depression associated with halitosis?
a cross-sectional study
Keywords:Halitosis, Depression, Stress, psychological
Mood disorders such as stress and depression can promote alterations of several hormones Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate if symptoms of depression and stress are associated with halitosis. The hypothesis is that halitosis is associated with stress and depression symptoms. Methods: All university students’ entrants in the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel) were invited to participate. Self-reported halitosis was measured using a visual analog scale. Students were also asked about the presence of halitosis perceived by close individuals. The stress level was measured using a modified version of the Perceived Stress Scale and symptoms of depression were screened by Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Poisson Regression Models were performed. Results: Of a total of 2,058 students who participated in the study, only 16% of them have reported not having any degree of halitosis and 17.6% were informed of closed individuals having halitosis. After adjustments, stress and depression symptoms remained associated with halitosis selfreported. Individuals from the higher stressed quartile presented higher scores of halitosis (RR 1.37 CI95% [1.24–1.53]). Students who presented depressive symptoms showed higher scores of self-perceived halitosis (RR 1.20 CI95% [1.10–1.32]). When the association of stress and halitosis reported by close individuals was tested, symptoms of depression lost the association in the adjusted model, while individuals from the highest quartile from stress remained associated (PR 1.36 CI95% [1.02–1.81]). Conclusion: Halitosis was associated with stress even after control for oral health and socioeconomic variables.
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