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Validity and reliability of palatal rugae morphometric assessment with 3D laser scanned models


Forensic dentistry
Forensic anthropology
Imaging, three-dimensional

How to Cite

Alselwi AA, Khamis MF bin, Abdullah JY. Validity and reliability of palatal rugae morphometric assessment with 3D laser scanned models. Braz. J. Oral Sci. [Internet]. 2022 Jan. 3 [cited 2023 Jun. 5];21(00):e225924. Available from:


Aim: To assess the reliability and validity of morphometric features on 3D digital models produced by scanning maxillary dental casts of Malaysian Malay subjects. Methods: Dental casts of 20 subjects were scanned using a 3D laser scanner (Next Engine Inc., Santa Monica, California, USA). The palatal rugae morphometric features were assessed on the resulting 3D models using 3-Matic Research 9.0 software (Materialise NV, Heverlee, Belgium). The assessments were repeated by the first and second authors to assess the intra- and interexaminer reliability, respectively. Rugae morphometric features were also evaluated on the conventional plaster models to assess the validity of the 3D method. Results: Kappa values of the validity ranged from 0.807 to 0.922 for rugae shape, size category and direction. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for rugae number validity was 0.979. For intra-examiner reliability, kappa values ranged from 0.716-1.000 for rugae shape, size category and direction. The ICC for rugae number intra-examiner reliability was 0.949. Kappa values of interexaminer reliability for rugae shape, size category and direction were 0.723-885, while the ICC of rugae number was 0.896. Conclusion: Palatal rugae analyses on 3D digital models scanned by the 3D Next Engine laser scanner using 3-Matic Research 9.0 software are valid and reliable.


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