Toothache experiences

findings from 21 years longitudinal survey




Toothache, Longitudinal studies, Oral health


Aim: To describe the pattern of toothache experience in a cohort of children aged 2-5 over 21 years and to find the relationship between previous toothache experience and later reports of toothache to get finding on the most critical period of toothache as a problem in life. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS). A total of 1,927 children from IFLS-1 with complete data were included as baseline participants. They were followed up four times within 21 years (age 6-9y, age 9-12y, age 16-19y, age 23- 26y). Toothache was based on the question of self-reported toothache experience during the last four weeks. After 21 years, a total of 1,098 individuals could be traced and completed every cohort of the survey. Toothache experiences were reported for frequencies in every cohort and accumulative experiences over 21 years. Logistic regression tests were performed to analyze the association of previous toothache experience and later toothache experience. Results: Almost 40% of the respondents reported toothache at least once in their life. The age of 6-9 years is the period when a high percentage of children had teeth-related pain. The experience of toothache at this period was significantly related to every period of age in life. Conclusions: The period of early mixed dentition is important. Oral health status in this period is associated with future oral health. A comprehensive dental health prevention program targeting this population is essential to increase the quality of life.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biographies

Elyda Akhya Afida Misrohmasari, Universitas Jember

Department of Public Health Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Jember, Jember, Indonesia.

Dimas Wicaksono, Universitas Jember

Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Jember, Jember, Indonesia.

Hestieyonini Hadnyanawati, Universitas Jember

Department of Public Health Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Jember, Jember, Indonesia.

Berlian Prihatiningrum, Universitas Jember

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Jember, Jember, Indonesia.


Muirhead VE, Quayyum Z, Markey D, Weston-Price S, Kimber A, Rouse W, et al. Children's toothache is becoming everybody's business: where do parents go when their children have oral pain in London, England? A cross-sectional analysis. BMJ Open. 2018 Feb 28;8(2):e020771. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020771.

Freire MCM, Jordão LMR, Peres MA, Abreu MHNG. Six-year trends in dental pain and maternal education inequalities among Brazilian adolescents. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2019 Dec;47(6):454-60. doi: 10.1111/cdoe.12483.

Wan S, Tao L, Liu M, Liu J. Prevalence of toothache in Chinese adults aged 65 years and above. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2021 Dec;49(6):522-32. doi: 10.1111/cdoe.12640.

Freire MCM, Nery NG, Jordão LMR, Abreu MHNG. Individual and contextual determinants of dental pain in adolescents: Evidence from a national survey. Oral Dis. 2019 Jul;25(5):1384-93. doi: 10.1111/odi.13100.

Hall-Scullin E, Whitehead H, Milsom K, Tickle M, Su TL, Walsh T. Longitudinal Study of Caries Development from Childhood to Adolescence. J Dent Res. 2017 Jul;96(7):762-7. doi: 10.1177/0022034517696457.

Boeira GF, Correa MB, Peres KG, Peres MA, Santos IS, Matijasevich A, et al. Caries is the main cause for dental pain in childhood: findings from a birth cohort. Caries Res. 2012;46(5):488-95. doi: 10.1159/000339491.

Tôrres LHN, Zanatta J, Pizolato RA, Grillo CM, Frias AC, Sousa MLR. Reasons related to tooth loss among adolescents in São Paulo, Brazil. Braz J Oral Sci. 2014;13(1):37-42. doi: 10.20396/bjos.v13i1.8640930.

Krisdapong S, Prasertsom P, Rattanarangsima K, Sheiham A. School absence due to toothache associated with sociodemographic factors, dental caries status, and oral health-related quality of life in 12- and 15-year-old Thai children. J Public Health Dent. 2013 Fall;73(4):321-8. doi: 10.1111/jphd.12030.

Barasuol JC, Santos PS, Moccelini BS, Magno MB, Bolan M, Martins-Júnior PA, et al. Association between dental pain and oral health-related quality of life in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2020 Aug;48(4):257-63. doi: 10.1111/cdoe.12535.

da Fonseca Cumerlato CB, Rotta RN, de Oliveira LJC, Corrêa MB. # Dentalpain: what do the brazilian Instagram® users want to mean? Braz J Oral Sci. 2020;19:e208591. doi: 10.20396/bjos.v19i0.8658591.

Hobdell M, Petersen PE, Clarkson J, Johnson N. Global goals for oral health 2020. Int Dent J. 2003 Oct;53(5):285-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1875-595x.2003.tb00761.x.

Ghorbani Z, Peres MA, Liu P, Mejia GC, Armfield JM, Peres KG. Does early-life family income influence later dental pain experience? A prospective 14-year study. Aust Dent J. 2017 Dec;62(4):493-9. doi: 10.1111/adj.12531.

Paulino MR, Clementino MA, Santos HB de P, et al. Self-Medication for toothache and its associated factors in children and adolescents. Pesq Bras Odontoped Clin Integr. 2019;19:e4348:1-9. doi: 10.4034/PBOCI.2019.191.36.

Escoffié-Ramirez M, Ávila-Burgos L, Baena-Santillan ES, Aguilar-Ayala F, Lara-Carrillo E, Minaya-Sánchez M, et al. Factors Associated with Dental Pain in Mexican Schoolchildren Aged 6 to 12 Years. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:7431301. doi: 10.1155/2017/7431301.

Miao NF, Wang TC, Chang FC, Lee CH, Chi HY, Huang LJ, Pan YC. Prevalence and association of pain experiences, medication literacy, and use of medication among children and adolescents in Taiwan. J Pediatr Nurs. 2019 May-Jun;46:e64-e71. doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2019.03.002.

Peres KG, Luzzi L, Harford J, Peres MA. Socioeconomic gradients in toothache experience among Australian adults: A time trend analysis from 1994 to 2013. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2019 Aug;47(4):324-32. doi: 10.1111/cdoe.12461.

Costa FDS, Costa CDS, Chisini LA, Wendt A, Santos IDSD, Matijasevich A, et al. Socio-economic inequalities in dental pain in children: A birth cohort study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2021 Jun 16. doi: 10.1111/cdoe.12660.

Costa F, Wendt A, Costa C, Chisini LA, Agostini B, Neves R, et al. Racial and regional inequalities of dental pain in adolescents: Brazilian National Survey of School Health (PeNSE), 2009 to 2015. Cad Saude Publica. 2021 Jun;37(6):e00108620. doi: 10.1590/0102-311X00108620.

RAND Corporation. Indonesia Family Life Survey. Santa Monica, California: RAND; 2020 [cited Jun 4]. Available from:

Frankenberg E, Karoly LA, Gertler P, Achmad S, Agung IGN, Hatmadji SH, et al. The 1993 Indonesian Family Life Survey: overview and field report. RAND Corporation. Demographic Institute; 1995 [cited 2021 Jun 4]. 63 p. Available from:

Strauss J, Witoelar F, Sikoki B. The Fifth Wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey: Overview and Field Report. RAND Labor & Population; 2016 Mar. doi: 10.7249/wr1143.1.

Aillón IEV, Tello G, Corrêa-Faria P, Abanto J, Oliveira LB, Bönecker M. Dental Pain in Preschool Children Using the Brazilian Dental Discomfort Questionnaire and its Association with Dental Caries and Socioeconomic Factors. Pediatr Dent. 2020 Jan;42(1):22-7.

Dogar F, Kruger E, Dyson K, Tennant M. Oral health of pre-school children in rural and remote Western Australia. Rural Remote Health. 2011;11(4):1869.

Shah R, Donde R, Mitra D, Rodrigues S, Shetty G, Prithyani S. Oral Hygiene Tips for Infants, Toddlers, Kids. World J Adv Sci Res. 2018;1(2):16-20.

Barreto KA, Dos Prazeres LD, Lima DS, Soares FC, Redivivo RM, da Franca C, et al. Factors associated with dental anxiety in Brazilian children during the first transitional period of the mixed dentition. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2017 Feb;18(1):39-43. doi: 10.1007/s40368-016-0264-6.

Lewis C, Stout J. Toothache in US children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010 Nov;164(11):1059-63. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.206.

Dahlander A, Soares F, Grindefjord M, Dahllöf G. Factors Associated with dental fear and anxiety in children aged 7 to 9 years. Dent J (Basel). 2019 Jul;7(3):68. doi: 10.3390/dj7030068.

Ravaghi V, Quiñonez C, Allison PJ. Oral pain and its covariates: findings of a Canadian population-based study. J Can Dent Assoc. 2013;79:d3.

Schuch HS, Correa MB, Torriani DD, Demarco FF, Goettems ML. Perceived dental pain: determinants and impact on brazilian schoolchildren. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2015 Spring;29(2):168-76. doi: 10.11607/ofph.1414.

Santos PS, Martins-Júnior PA, Paiva SM, Klein D, Torres FM, Giacomin A, et al. Prevalence of self-reported dental pain and associated factors among eight- to ten-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. PLoS One. 2019 Apr;14(4):e0214990. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0214990.

Santiago BM, Valença AM, Vettore MV. Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study. BMC Oral Health. 2013 Jan;13:2. doi: 10.1186/1472-6831-13-2.

Sawyer SM, Azzopardi PS, Wickremarathne D, Patton GC. The age of adolescence. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2018 Mar;2(3):223-8. doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(18)30022-1.

Constante HM, Bastos JL, Peres KG, Peres MA. Socio-demographic and behavioural inequalities in the impact of dental pain among adults: a population-based study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2012 Dec;40(6):498-506. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2012.00701.x.

Lu HX, Wong MC, Lo EC, McGrath C. Trends in oral health from childhood to early adulthood: a life course approach. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2011 Aug;39(4):352-60. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2011.00611.x.

Dos Santos Costa F, Agostini BA, Schuch HS, Britto Correa M, Goettems ML, Demarco FF. Parent-child interaction and stimulation in early life can be related to caries in primary dentition? Hypotheses from a life-course approach. Med Hypotheses. 2019 Sep;130:109291. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2019.109291.




How to Cite

Misrohmasari EAA, Wicaksono D, Hadnyanawati H, Prihatiningrum B. Toothache experiences: findings from 21 years longitudinal survey. Braz. J. Oral Sci. [Internet]. 2022 Feb. 4 [cited 2022 Aug. 13];21(00):e226288. Available from:



Original Research