Aim: This study assessed the effect of thermal aging on the interfacial strength of resin cements to surface-treated PEEK. Methods: Ninety-six PEEK blocks were allocated into 4 groups (n=24), according to following surface treatments: SB - sandblasting with aluminum oxide; SA - acid etched with 98% sulfuric acid; CA – coupling agent (Visio.link, Bredent) and CO - control group (untreated). Surface roughness (Ra) was measured and one cylinder (1-mm diameter and height) of Rely-X Ultimate - ULT (3M/ESPE) and another one of Panavia V5 - PAN (Kuraray) were constructed on the treated or untreated PEEK surfaces. Half of the samples of each group were thermal aged (1,000 cycles). Samples were tested at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min in shear mode (μSBS). Ra and μSBS data were compared using one- and three-way ANOVA, respectively, and Tukey’s tests. Results: SA and SB samples had the roughest surfaces, while CA the smoother (p<0.001). Thermal aging reduced μSBS regardless the surface treatment and resin cement used. There was interaction between surface treatment and resin cement (p <0.001), with ULT showing higher μSBS values than PAN. SA provided higher μSBS than SB for both resin cements, while for CA μSBS was higher (PAN) or lower than SB (ULT). Conclusion: Aging inadvertently reduces interfacial strength between PEEK and the resin cements. If ULT is the resin cement of choice, reliable interfacial strength is reached after any PEEK surface treatment. However, if PAN is going to be used only SA and CA are recommended as PEEK treatment.
Blanch-Martínez N, Arias-Herrera S, Martínez-González A. Behavior of polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) in prostheses on dental implants. A review. J Clin Exp Dent. 2021;13:e520-6. doi: 10.4317/jced.58102.
Papathanasiou I, Kamposiora P, Papavasiliou G, Ferrari M. The use of PEEK in digital prosthodontics: a narrative review. BMC Oral Health. 2020 Aug;20(1):217. doi: 10.1186/s12903-020-01202-7.
Nahar R, Mishra SK, Chowdhary R. Evaluation of stress distribution in an endodontically treated tooth restored with four different post systems and two different crowns- A finite element analysis. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res. 2020 Oct-Dec;10(4):719-26. doi: 10.1016/j.jobcr.2020.10.004.
Qin L, Yao S, Zhao J, Zhou C, Oates TW, Weir MD, et al. Review on development and dental applications of polyetheretherketone-based biomaterials and restorations. Materials (Basel). 2021 Jan;14(2):408. doi: 10.3390/ma14020408.
Gama LT, Duque TM, Özcan M, Philippi AG, Mezzomo LAM, Gonçalves TMSV. Adhesion to high-performance polymers applied in dentistry: A systematic review. Dent Mater. 2020 Apr;36(4):e93-e108. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2020.01.002.
Bathala L, Majeti V, Rachuri N, Singh N, Gedela S. The role of polyether ether ketone (PEEK) in dentistry: a review. J Med Life. 2019 Jan-Mar;12(1):5-9. doi: 10.25122/jml-2019-0003.
Tsuka H, Morita K, Kato K, Kawano H, Abekura H, Tsuga K. Evaluation of shear bond strength between PEEK and resin-based luting material. J Oral Biosci. 2017;59(4):231-6. doi: 10.3290/j.jad.b2288283.
Rocha RF, Anami LC, Campos TM, Melo RM, Souza RO, Bottino MA. Bonding of the polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK) to human dentin: effect of surface treatments. Braz Dent J. 2016 Oct-Dec;27(6):693-9. doi: 10.1590/0103-6440201600796.
Parkar U, Dugal R, Madanshetty P, Devadiga T, Khan AS, Godil A. Assessment of different surface treatments and shear bond characteristics of poly-ether-ether-ketone: An in vitro SEM analysis. J Indian Prosthodont Soc. 2021 Oct-Dec;21(4):412-9. doi: 10.4103/jips.jips_199_21.
Escobar M, Souza JCM, Barra GMO, Fredel MC, Özcan M, Henriques B. On the synergistic effect of sulfonic functionalization and acidic adhesive conditioning to enhance the adhesion of PEEK to resin-matrix composites. Dent Mater. 2021 Apr;37(4):741-54. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2021.01.017.
Soares Machado P, Cadore Rodrigues AC, Chaves ET, Susin AH, Valandro LF, Pereira GKR, et al. Surface treatments and adhesives used to increase the bond strength between polyetheretherketone and resin-based dental materials: a scoping review. J Adhes Dent. 2022 May;24(1):233-45. doi: 10.3290/j.jad.b2288283.
Keul C, Liebermann A, Schmidlin PR, Roos M, Sener B, Stawarczyk B. Influence of PEEK surface modification on surface properties and bond strength to veneering resin composites. J Adhes Dent. 2014 Aug;16(4):383-92. doi: 10.3290/j.jad.a32570.
Morresi AL, D'Amario M, Capogreco M, Gatto R, Marzo G, D'Arcangelo C, et al. Thermal cycling for restorative materials: does a standardized protocol exist in laboratory testing? A literature review. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2014 Jan;29:295-308. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.09.013.
Stawarczyk B, Bähr N, Beuer F, Wimmer T, Eichberger M, Gernet W, et al. Influence of plasma pretreatment on shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to polyetheretherketone. Clin Oral Investig. 2014 Jan;18(1):163-70. doi: 10.1007/s00784-013-0966-7.
Armstrong S, Geraldeli S, Maia R, Raposo LH, Soares CJ, Yamagawa J. Adhesion to tooth structure: a critical review of "micro" bond strength test methods. Dent Mater. 2010 Feb;26(2):e50-62. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2009.11.155.
Muñoz MA, Baggio R, Mendes YBEM, Gomes GM, Luque-Martinez I, Loguercio, AD, et al. The effect of loading method and cross-head speed on resindentin microshear bond strength. Int J Adhes Adhes. 2014 Apr;50:136-41. doi: 10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2014.01.024.
Walker MP, Spencer P, David Eick J. Mechanical property characterization of resin cement after aqueous aging with and without cyclic loading. Dent Mater. 2003 Nov;19(7):645-52. doi: 10.1016/s0109-5641(03)00008-3.
Müller JA, Rohr N, Fischer J. Evaluation of ISO 4049: water sorption and water solubility of resin cements. Eur J Oral Sci. 2017 Apr;125(2):141-50. doi: 10.1111/eos.12339.
Goyal RK, Tiwari AN, Mulik UP, Negi YS. Thermal expansion behaviour of high performance PEEK matrix composites. J Phys D: Appl Phys. 2008 Mar;41(8):085403. doi; 10.1088/0022-3727/41/8/085403.
Cakan U, Saygılı G. Comparison of thermal stress on various restorative post and core materials generated by oral temperature changes using three dimensional finite element analysis. Clin Dent Res. 2015;39(1):27-35.
Gale MS, Darvell BW. Thermal cycling procedures for laboratory testing of dental restorations. J Dent. 1999 Feb;27(2):89-99. doi: 10.1016/s0300-5712(98)00037-2.
Correr-Sobrinho L, Costa AR, Fugolin APP, Sundfeld Neto D, Ferracane JL, Pfeifer CS. Effect of experimental resin cements containing thio-urethane oligomers on the durability of ceramic-composite bonded interfaces. Biomater Investig Dent. 2019 Nov 27;6(1):81-9. doi: 10.1080/26415275.2019.1693274.
Stawarczyk B, Jordan P, Schmidlin PR, Roos M, Eichberger M, Gernet W, et al. PEEK surface treatment effects on tensile bond strength to veneering resins. J Prosthet Dent. 2014 Nov;112(5):1278-88. doi: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2014.05.014.
Yee RSL, Zhang K, Ladewig BP. The effects of sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) ion exchange preparation conditions on membrane properties. Membranes. 2013 Aug;3(3):182-95. doi: 10.3390/membranes3030182.
Silthampitag P, Chaijareenont P, Tattakorn K, Banjongprasert C, Takahashi H, Arksornnukit M. Effect of surface pretreatments on resin composite bonding to PEEK. Dent Mater J. 2016;35(4):668-74. doi: 10.4012/dmj.2015-349.
Rosentritt M, Preis V, Behr M, Sereno N, Kolbeck C. Shear bond strength between veneering composite and PEEK after different surface modifications. Clin Oral Investig. 2015 Apr;19(3):739-44. doi: 10.1007/s00784-014-1294-2.
Çulhaoğlu AK, Özkır SE, Şahin V, Yılmaz B, Kılıçarslan MA. Effect of various treatment modalities on surface characteristics and shear bond strengths of polyetheretherketone-based core materials. J Prosthodont. 2020 Feb;29(2):136-41. doi: 10.1111/jopr.12702.
Stawarczyk B, Beuer F, Wimmer T, Jahn D, Sener B, Roos M, et al. Polyetheretherketone - A suitable material for fixed dental prostheses? J Biomed Mater Res - Part B Appl Biomater. 2013 Oct;101(7):1209-16. doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.32932.
Adem N, Bal B, Kazazoğlu E. Comparative study of chemical and mechanical surface treatment effects on the shear bond strength of polyether-ether-ketone to veneering resin. Int J Prosthodont. 2022 March/April;35(2):201-7. doi: 10.11607/ijp.6938.
Ourahmoune R, Salvia M, Mathia TG, Mesrati N. Surface morphology and wettability of sandblasted PEEK and its composites. Scanning. 2014 Jan-Feb;36(1):64-75. doi: 10.1002/sca.21089.
Elawadly T, Radi WIA, El Khadem A, Osman RB. Can PEEK be an implant material? Evaluation of surface topography and wettability of filled versus unfilled PEEK with different surface roughness. J Oral Implantol. 2017 Dec;43(6):456-61. doi: 10.1563/aaid-joi-D-17-00144.
Tsuka H, Morita K, Kato K, Kimura H, Abekura H, Hirata I, et al. Effect of laser groove treatment on shear bond strength of resin-based luting agent to polyetheretherketone (PEEK). J Prosthodont Res. 2019 Jan;63(1):52-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpor.2018.08.001.
Stawarczyk B, Taufall S, Roos M, Schmidlin PR, Lümkemann N. Bonding of composite resins to PEEK: the influence of adhesive systems and air-abrasion parameters. Clin Oral Investig. 2018 Mar;22(2):763-71. doi: 10.1007/s00784-017-2151-x.
Yilmaz B, Gouveia D, Schimmel M, Lu WE, Özcan M, Abou-Ayash S. Effect of adhesive system, resin cement, heat-pressing technique, and thermomechanical aging on the adhesion between titanium base and a high-performance polymer. J Prosthet Dent. 2022 May 2;S0022-3913(22)00207-4. doi: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2022.03.026.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2022 Aline Mometi Joly, Guilherme da Gama Ramos, Cecilia Pedroso Turssi