Uma visão antropológica do prodigioso jejum de mulheres ocidentais

  • Carole M. Counihan Universidade de Millersville
Palavras-chave: Jejum. Antropologia. Alimento. Mulheres. Comida

Resumo

No prodigioso jejum, às vezes até a morte, mulheres ocidentais expressaram uma relação específica com a comida durante quase oito séculos. Este ensaio tenta explicar esse comportamento entretecendo os finos e fascinantes dados históricos apresentados nos três livros resenhados – Holy Anorexia (BELL, 1985); Fasting Girls: The Emergence of Anorexia Nervosa as a Modern Disease (BRUMBERG, 1988) e Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women (BYNUM, 1987) – vendo-os a partir de perspectivas interculturais e totalizantes fundamentais para a antropologia. Pretendo mostrar que o jejum de mulheres ocidentais difere radicalmente de outros tipos de jejum observados por antropólogos ao redor do globo e que envolve uma alteração altamente simbólica da relação universal das mulheres com a comida. Argumento que ela pode ser mais bem compreendida como um comportamento pluri-determinado, uma combinação de fatores ideológicos, econômicos, políticos e sociais.

Abstract

In prodigious fasting, sometimes to death, Western women have expressed an extraordinary relationship to food for almost eight centuries. This essay attempts to explain such behavior by weaving together the fine-grained and fascinating historical data presented in the three books under review – Holy Anorexia (BELL, 1985); Fasting Girls: The Emergence of Anorexia Nervosa as a Modern Disease (BRUMBERG, 1988) e Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women (BYNUM, 1987) – and viewing them from the cross-cultural and holistic perspectives fundamental to anthropology. I aim to show that Western female fasting differs radically from other kinds of fasting observed by anthropologists across the globe and that it involves a highly symbolic alteration of women’s universal relationship to food. I argue that it is best understood as a multidetermined behavior, an interplay of ideological, economic, political, and social factors.

Key Words: Fasting, Anthropology, Women, Food.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Referências

BARTHES, Roland. Toward a psychosociology of contemporary food consumption. In: FOSTER, Elborg e FOSTER, Robert (eds.). European diet from pre-industrial do modern times. New York, Harper and Row, 1975 [1961]. Reprinted in Counihan, Carole e Van Esterik, Penny. Food and Culture: a reader. New York, Routledge, 1997.

BELL, Rudolph M. Holy Anorexia. Epílogo de William N. Davis. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1985.

BERGER, John. Ways of seeing. New York, Penguin, 1993.

BORDO, Susan. Unbearable weight feminism, western culture and the body. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1993.

BOSKIND-LODAHL, Marlene. Cinderella’s stepsisters: a feminist perspective on anorexia nervosa and bulimarexia. Signs 2, 1976, pp.342-56.

BOSKIND-WHITE, Marlene e WHITE, William C. Bulimarexia. The binge/purge cycle. New York, Norton, 1983.

BROWN, Judith K. Iroquois women: na ethnohistorical note. In: REITER, Rayna R. (ed.) Toward na anthropology of women. New York, Monthly Review, 1975.

BRUCH, Hilde. Eating disorders: obesity, anorexia nervosa and the person within. New York, Basic Books, 1973.

__________. The golden cage: the enigma of anorexia nervosa. New York, Vintage, 1978.

__________. Conversations with anorexics. New York, Basic Books, 1988.

BRUMBERG, Joan Jacobs. Fasting Girls: The Emergence of Anorexia Nervosa as a Modern Disease. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1988.

BYNUM, Caroline Walker. Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1987.

CHERNIN, Kim. The obsession: reflections on the tyranny of slenderness.

New York, Harper and Row, 1981.

__________. The hungry self. New York, Times Books, 1985.

__________. Reinventing eve: modern woman in search of herself. New York, Times Books, 1987.

COUNIHAN, Carole M. Food, culture and political economy: an investigation of changing food habits in the Sardinian Town of Bosa.

Ph. D. diss., University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 1981.

__________. An Anthropological View of Western Women’s Prodigious Fasting. A review essay. Food and Foodways 3, 4, London, Routledge, 1989, pp.357-75.

DALLY, Peter. Anorexia nervosa. New York, Grune & Scratton, 1969 D’ANDRADE, Roy. Sex differences and cultural institutions. In: LEVINE, Robert A. Culture and personality: contemporary readings. New York, Aldine, 1974.

DAVIS, William N. Epilogue. In: BELL, Rudolph M. Holy anorexia.

Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1985.

DELANEY, Janice; Lupton, Mary Jane e Toth, Emily. The curse: a cultural history of menstruation. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1988.

DOUGLAS, Mary. Purity and danger. Londres, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1966.

__________. Deciphering a meal. Daedalus 101, 1972, pp.61-82.

__________. Natural symbols: explorations in cosmology. New York, Pantheon, 1973.

__________. Food in the social order: studies of food and festivities in three american communities. New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1984.

EMMONS, Lillian. Food procurement and the nutritional adequacy of diets in low-income families. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 86 (12), 1986, pp.1684-93.

FIRTH, Raymond. Social change in Tikopia: restudy of a polynesian community after a generation. New York, Macmillan, 1959.

FREUD, Anna. The psychoanalytic study of infantile feeding disturbances.

The psychoanalytic study of child. An. Annual, vol. 2. In: COUNIHAN, Carole e VAN ESTERIK, Penny. Food and Culture: a reader. New York, Routledge, 1997 [1946].

FREUD, Sigmund. Three contributions to the theory of sex. New York, Dutton, 1962.

GARFINKEL, Paul E. e GARNER, David M. Anorexia nervosa: a multidimensional perspective. New York, Brunner/ Mazel, 1982.

GEERTZ, Clifford. The interpretation of culture. Selected essays. New York, Basic Books, 1973.

GILLIGAN, Carol. In a different voice: psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1981.

GOODY, Jack. Cooking, cuisine and class: a study in comparative sociology. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1982.

GORDON, Richard A. A sociocultural interpretation of the current epidemic of eating disorders. In: BLINDER, B. J.; Chaiting, B. F. e Goldstein, R. (eds.) The eating disorders. Great Neck, New York, PMA Publishing, 1988.

HOLMBERG, Allan R. Nomads of the long bow: the Siriono of eastern Bolivia. Prospect Heights. Ill. Waveland, 1969.

HSU, L. K. George. Are eating disorders becoming more common in blacks? International Journal of Eating Disorders 6 (1), 1987, pp.113-24.

KAHN, Miriam. Always hungry, never greedy: food and the expression of gender in a Melanesian society. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1986.

KATONA-APTE, Judit. Dietary aspects of acculturation in South Asia. In: ARNOTT, Margaret L. Gastronomy: the anthropology of food habits.

The Hague, Mouton, 1975.

LAWRENCE, Marilyn. The anorexic experience. London, Women’s Press, 1984.

LEE, Richard B. The !Kung San: men, women and work in foraging society. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1979.

__________. The dobe !Kung. New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1984.

LEVENKRON, Steven. The best little girl in the world. New York, Warner, 1978.

LÉVI-STRAUSS, Claude. The elementary structures of kinship. Boston, Beacon, 1967.

__________. The raw and the cooked: introduction to a science of mythology. New York, Harper & Row, 1969.

LIU, Aimee. Solitaire. New York, Harper & Row, 1979.

MACKENZIE, Margaret. Self-control, moral responsability, competence and rationality: obesity as failure in american culture. Obesity/Bariatric Medicine 5 (4), 1976, pp.132-33.

MACLEOD, Sheila. The art of starvation: a story of anorexia and survival.

New York, Schocken, 1981 MALINOWSKI, Bronislaw. Argonauts of the western pacific. New York, Dutton, 1922.

MARSHALL, Lorna. The !kung of Nyae Nyae. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1976.

MAUSS, Marcel. The gift: forms and functions of xxchange in archaic societies. New York, Norton, 1967 [1925].

MEAD, Margaret. Male and female: a study of the sexes in a changing world. New York, Morrow, 1967.

MEIGS, Anna. Food, sex and pollution: a New Guinea religion. New Brunswick-NJ, Rutgers University Press, 1984.

MESSER, Ellen. Small but healthy? Some cultural considerations. Human Organization 48 (1), 1989, pp.39-52.

MESSINA, Maria. The odour of piety. Paper presented at the 87th Annual Meeting of the Amercian Anthropological Association, 1988.

MINUCHIN, Salvador; ROSMAN, Bernice L. e BAKER, Lester. Psychosomatic falimies: anorexia nervosa in context. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1978.

MURPHY, Yolanda e MURPHY, Robert F. Women of the Forest. New York, Columbia Unviersity Press, 1985.

NOCHLIN, Linda. Women, art, and power and other essays. New York, Harper & Row, 1988.

ORBACH, Susie. Fat is a feminist issue: the anti-diet guide to permanent weight loss. New York, Berkeley Books, 1978.

__________. Fat is a feminist issue, II: a program to conquer compulsive eating. New York, Bekeley, 1982.

PALAZZOLI, Maria Selvini. Self-starvation: from the intrapsychic to the transpersonal approach to anorexia nervosa. London, Chaucer, 1974.

PANDIAN, Jacob. Anthropology and the western tradition: toward an authentic anthropology. Prospect Heights, III, Waveland, 1985.

PARKER, Sheila et alii. Body, image and weight concerns among African American and White adolescent females: differences that make a difference. Human Organization 54 (2), 1995, pp.103-114.

PAUL, Lois. The mastery of work and the mistery of sex in a Guatemalan Village. In: ROSALDO, Michelle Zimbalissst and LAMPHERE, Louise.

(eds.) Women, culture and society. Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1974.

PEACOCK, James L. The anthropological lens: harsh light, soft focus. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1986.

POWDERMAKER, Hortense. An anthropological approach to the problem of obesity. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 36, 1960, pp.286-295.

RICHARDS, Audrey. Land, labour and diet in Norhern Rhodesia: an economic study of the Bemba Tribe. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1939.

SAHLINS, Marshall. Stone age economics. Hawthorne-N.Y., Aldine, 1972.

SCHWARTZ, Hillel. Never satisfied: a cultural history of diets, fantasies and fat. New York, Free Press, 1986.

SHACK, Dorothy N. Nutritional processes and personality development among the gurage of Ethiopia. Ethnology 8 (3), 1969, pp.292-300.

Reimpresso em: COUNIHAN, Carole e VAN ESTERIK, Penny. Food and Culture: a reader. New York, Routledge, 1997.

SHACK, William A. Hunger, anxiety and ritual: deprivation and spirit possession among the gurage of Ethiopia. Man 6(1), 1971, pp.30-45.

Reimpresso em: COUNIHAN, Carole e VAN ESTERIK, Penny. Food and Culture: a reader. New York, Routledge, 1997.

SHOSTAK, Marjorie. Nisa, the life and words of a !kung woman. New York, vintage, 1981.

SISKIND, Janet. To hunt in the morning. New York, Oxford, 1973.

STACK, Carol B. All our kin: strategies for survival in a black community.

New York, Harper & Row, 1974 STRIEGEL-MOORE, Ruth H.; SILBERSTEIN, Lisa R. e RODIN, Judith. Toward an understanding of the risk factors for bulimia. American Psychologist 41(3), 1986, pp.246-263.

STYLES, Marvalene H. Soul, Black women and food. In: Kaplan, J.R.

(ed.) A woman’s conflict, the special relationship between women and food. Englewood Cliffs NJ, Prentice-Hall, 1980.

TAGGART, James M. Nahuat myth and social structure. Austin, University of Texas Press, 1983.

TAMBIAH, S. J. Animals are good to think and good to prohibit. Ethnology 8(4), 1969, pp.423-459.

THOMAS, Elizabeth M. The harmless people. New York, Knopf, 1959.

THOMPSON, Becky W. A hunger so wide and so deep: American women speak out on eating problems. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1994.

TURNBULL, Colin M. The mountain people. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1972.

TYLOR, Sir Edward Burnett. Primitive culture, vol. 1. New York, Harper & Row, 1958 [1871].

VERDIER, Yvonne. Pour une ethnologie culinaire. L’Homme 9(1), 1969, pp.49-57.

WEINER, Annette. The trobrianders of Papua New Guinea. New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1988.

WEINSMANTEL, M. J. Food, gender and poverty in the Ecuadorian Andes.

Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988.

WINNICK, Myron. Hunger disease: studies by the Jewish Physicians in the Warsaw Ghetto. New York, Wiley, 1979.

WOLF, Eric. Anthropology. New York, Norton, 1974.

YOUNG, Michael W. “The worst disease”: the cultural definition of hungers in Kalauna. In: Manderson, Lenore. (ed.) Shared wealth and symbol: food, culture and society in Oceania and Southeast Asia. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Publicado
2016-04-14
Como Citar
Counihan, C. M. (2016). Uma visão antropológica do prodigioso jejum de mulheres ocidentais. Cadernos Pagu, (39), 15-53. Recuperado de https://periodicos.sbu.unicamp.br/ojs/index.php/cadpagu/article/view/8645051