Popular religions and multiple modernities
PDF (English)

Palabras clave

América Latina
Pluralismo religioso
Múltiples modernidades
Nuevas teorías de la religión
Religiones no occidentales

Cómo citar

Parker, C. (2016). Popular religions and multiple modernities: a theoretical framework for a research agenda. Ciencias Sociales Y Religión, 18(25), 38–57. https://doi.org/10.22456/1982-2650.69247


Religious diversity and pluralism is increasing in Latin America. The religious field that was some decades ago totally Catholic has changed radically. Not only Pentecostalism or NeoPentecostalism but other Evangelicals as well as independent churches of various denominations and forms, non-affiliated people and many diverse (ethnic, afro-American , New Age, etc.) and diffuse religious expressions are growing. The main argument of this paper is that this religious changes toward pluralism can be fully understood in the context of multiple modernities theory, provided that it be revised and modified. A new sociological approach is needed. The classical sociological concepts and theories, beginning with secularization, must be criticized and replaced with a more complex theoretical view. Latin American historical processes must be compared with what is happening in other regions of the world and not only with the West. World religions are answering each one by their own path to multiple interactions with modernities. The key understanding of changes must come from a better insight of popular religions worldwide. Latin American, Eastern Asia, Islam regions, are good examples of popular forms of religious revitalization that contrasts with the Northern European case. They put in evidence the fact that new ways of producing sense and spiritual search in non-Western geo-cultural areas are framing specific relationships between religion and modernities and bringing about new religious pluralisms.

PDF (English)


Ahmed, A.S. (1992) Postmodernism and Islam: Predicament and Promise, London: Routledge.

Alatas, S.F. (2010) ‘Religion and Reform: Two Exemplars for Autonomous Sociology in the Non-Western Context’, Sijat Patel (ed.), The ISA Handbook of Diverse Sociological Traditions, London: Sage, pp. 29–39.

Ameigeiras, Aldo and Jure, Elisa (2006) Diversidad Cultural e Interculturalidad. Buenos Aires: Prometeo.

Beckford, J. (1989), Religion and Advanced Industrial Society, London: Unwin Hyman.

Beckford, J.A. (2004) ‘Why Britian doesn’t go to Church?’, BBC News, Tuesday, 17 February 2004.

Beckford, J. and Wallis (Eds.) (2006), Theorising Religion: classical and contemporary debates, Aldershot, Hampshire: Asghate.

Beckford, J. Demerath III, N. J., (2007) The SAGE Handbook of the Sociology of Religion, London: SAGE.

Bellah, R.N. (2007), ‘Reading and Misreading Habits of the Heart’, Sociology of Religion, 68:2, pp. 189–193.

Beriain, J. (2002), ‘Modernidades múltiples y encuentro de civilizaciones’, Papers 68, pp. 31–63.

Beyer, Peter (2005), ‘Au croisement de l’identité et de la différence: les syncrétismes culturo–religieux dans le contexte de la mondialisation’, Social Compass 52(4), pp. 417–29.

Boaventura de Sousa Santos (2010), Descolonizar el saber, reinventar el poder, Montevideo: Trilce.

Braudel, Fernand (1986), La historia y las ciencias sociales, Madrid: Alianza.

Castells, M. (1998), ‘La era de la Información’, Economía Sociedad y cultura, vol. 2, El poder de la Identidad, Madrid: Alianza.

Castells. M. (2012), Redes de Indignación y Eseperanza. Los movimientos sociales en la era de internet, Madrid: Alianza.

Cipriani, R. (2011), Manual de sociología de la religion (2nd edition), Buenos Aires: Siglo Veintiuno Editores.

Cipriani, R. (2016) ‘ The Future of Religions’, ISA, The Futures We Want.

Clart, P. (2014) ‘Conceptualizations of ‘Popular Religion’ in Recent Research in the People’s Republic of China’ In Wang Chien-chuan, Li Shiwei (Eds.), Yanjiu xin shijie: “Mazu yu Huaren minjian xinyang” guoji yantaohui lunwenji, Hong Yingfa, Taipei: Boyang, pp. 391.412.

Clart, P. (2012) ‘Chinese Popular Religion’, in Randall Nadeau, ed., The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Chinese Religions, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 219-237.

Cruz-Mireles, R., Gómez Macías, G. C., Castellanos Ramírez, M. (2008), La Invisibilidad Estadística como Base de la Discriminación Religiosa, COLECCIÓN ESTUDIOS 2008, México, D.F.: Consejo Nacional para Prevenir la Discriminación.

Davie, G. (2007), The Sociology of Religion. London: Sage.

Davie, G. (2006) ‘Is Europe an Exceptional Case?’, The Hedgehog Review, Spring & Summer, 06, pp. 23–34.

De la Torre, R. and Gutierrez, C. (2013), ‘New Landscape of religious diversity in Mexico’. In Guiseppe Giordan and William Swatos Jr. (eds), Testing Pluralism: Globalizing Belief, Localizing Gods, Leiden: Brill, pp. 125–148.

De la Torre, R. and Martín, E. (2016), ‘Religious Studies in Latin America’, Annu. Rev. Sociol. 2016. 42, pp. 473–92.

Dockendorf, C. (2016), Neurociencias y auto-secularización del cristianismo: una caracterización sociológica de procesos comunicativos emergentes entre ciencia y religion, Proyecto FONDECYT, Santiago de Chile.

Durkheim, Emile (1995), The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, Translaton K. E. Fields, New York: The Free Press.

Eisenstadt, S.N. (2000), ‘Multiple modernities’, Daedalus, Winter 2000; 129, pp. 1–29.

Eisenstadt, S.N. (2003), Comparative Civilizations and Multiple Modernities, Leiden: Brill.

Eisenstadt, S.N. (2013a), ‘The First Multiple Modernities: Collective Identity, Public Spheres and Political Order in the Americas’, Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales, Nueva Época, LVIII, no. 218, May–August 2013, pp. 129–152.

Eisenstadt, S.N. (2013b), ‘Latin America and the Problem of Multiple Modernities’, Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales, Nueva Época, LVIII, no. 218, May–August 2013, pp. 153–164.

Fuller, R.C. (2001), Spiritual, But Not Religious, Understanding Unchurched America, New York: Oxford University Press.

Gellner, E. (1992) Postmodernism, Reason and Religion, London: Routledge.

Hackett, C., Stonawski, M., Potančoková, M., Grim, B.J., Skirbekk, V. (2015) ‘The future size of religiously affiliated and unaffiliated populations’, Demographic Research, vol. 32, art. 27, pp. 829−842.

Hassan, R. (2007) ‘On Being Religious: Patterns of Religious Commitment in Muslim Societies’, The Muslim World, n 97, pp. 437-478.

Hefner, R.W. (1998), ‘Multiple Modernities: Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism in a Globalizing Age’, Annu. Rev. Anthropol, 1998. 27, pp. 83–104.

Huntington, S.P. (1996), The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, New York: Simon and Schuster.

Jung, D. and Sinclair, K. (2015) ‘Multiple modernities, modern subjectivities and social order. Unity and difference in the rise of Islamic modernities’. Thesis Eleven October 2015, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 22–42.

Kamali,M. (2012), “Multiple modernities and mass communications in Muslim countries”, Global Media and Communication, vol. 8 no. 3, pp. 243-268.

Kepel, G. (1991), La revenge de Dieu. Chrétiens, juifs et musulmans à la reconquête du monde. Paris: Seuil.

Lander, Edgardo (2000a). ‘Ciencias sociales: saberes coloniales y eurocéntrico’. In La colonialidad del saber: eurocentrismo y ciencias sociales. Perspectivas Latinoamericanas. Edgardo Lander (Ed.) CLACSO, Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Lander, E. (2000b). ‘Eurocentrism and Colonialism in Latin American Social Thought’. Nepantla: Views from South 1(3), 519–532. Duke University Press. Retrieved September 25 2016, from Project MUSE database.

Ma, Xisha and Meng, Huiying (eds) (2011), Popular Religion and Shamanism, Religious Studies in Contemporary China Collection, Leiden, Boston: Brill.

Maduro, O. (1980), Religión y conflicto social en América Latina, México: Centro Estudios Ecuménicos.

Mallimaci, F., Cruz, J., Gimenez, V. (2015), ‘What do Argentine people believe in? Religion and social structure in Argentina’, Social Compass, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 255–277.

Martin, D.(2005), On Secularization: Towards a Revised General Theory, Aldershot: Ashgate.

Mauss, M. (1950), Sociologie et Anthropologie, Paris: PUF.

McGuire, M.B. (2008), Lived religion: faith and practice in everyday life, New York: Oxford University Press.

McKinnon, A. and Trzebiatowska, M. (2014), Sociological Theory and the Question of Religion, London: Routledge.

Meister, C. (ed.) (2011), The Oxford Handbook of Religious Diversity. New York: Oxford University Press.

Oro, Ari P., y Steil, CA., (Orgs.). (1997), Globalização e religião. Vozes: Petrópolis

Parker, C. (1993), Otra Lógica en América Latina, Religión popular y modernización capitalista, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México-Santiago.

Parker, C. (1998a), ‘Le transformations du champ religieux en Amerique latine, Introduction’, Social Compass 45(3), pp. 323–333.

Parker C (1998b) ‘Modern popular religion: A complex object of study for sociology’. International Sociology, 13 (2), pp. 195–212.

Parker, C. (2002) ‘Religion and the Awakening of Indigenous People in Latin America’, Social Compass 49(1), pp. 67–81.

Parker, C. (2005) ‘América Latina ya no es Catholic: pluralismo religious y cultural creciente’, América Latina Hoy 41, pp. 35–56.

Parker, C. (2006a), ‘Mágico-Popular Religion in Contemporary Society: Towards a Post Western Sociology of Religion’. in Beckford, J. and Walliss, J. (Eds.), Theorising Religion, Classical And Contemporary Debates, Cornwall, UK: Ashgate, pp. 60–74.

Parker, C. (2006b) ‘Identidades e Interculturalidad en América Latina, Marco de Interpretación Dinámico’. In Guillermo Fernández-Beret (Ed.) Identidades abiertas: Entre la fijación fundamentalista y la pérdida de sentido, pp. 51–102. Santiago de Chile: Instituto Pedro de Córdoba.

Parker, C. (2007), ‘Popular Religion as a Global Phenomenon: comparative analysis of Latin America, Africa and Asia / La Religion Populaire comme un Phénomène Global: analyse comparative de l'Amérique latine, l'Afrique et l'Asie’, Presentation at the ISSR-SISR, Leipzig, Germany, 16.07.2007.

Parker, C. (2008), ‘Interculturality, Conflicts and Religion: Theoretical Perspectives’, Social Compass, 55, pp. 316–329.

Parker, C. (2009), ‘Education and Increasing Religious Pluralism in Latin America: The Case of Chile’. In Frances Hagopian (ed.), Religious Pluralism, Democracy, and theCatholic Church in Latin America, ND, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, pp. 131–181.

Parker, C. (2013), ‘Religious Transformations in Latin America’, Presentation at the ISSR-SISR 2013 Conference, Turku, Finland, 26 June 2013.

Parker, C. (2014) ‘El incremento del pluralismo religioso y cultural’, in Jaime Llambias, Los Nuevos desafíos para América Latina, Santiago: RIL editors, pp. 129–155.

Parker, C. (2015), ‘Religions, croyances, idéologies et modèles culturels : Nouveaux paysages et multiples reconfigurations/Religions, beliefs, ideologies and cultural models: new lanscapes and multiple configurations’, presentation at 33rd ISSR/ SISR Conference, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, 2–5 July 2015.

Parker, C. (2016), ‘Religious Pluralism and New Political Identities in Latin America’, Latin American Perspectives, vol. 43(3), pp. 15–30.

Paz, O. (1992), El laberinto de la soledad, México: FCE.

Pew-Templeton (2015), The Future of World Religions, Pew Research Center, Washington DC.

Possamai A. (2015), ‘Popular and lived religions’. Curr. Sociol. 63(6), pp. 781–99.

Possamai, A. (2009), ‘The Multiple modernities of Islam?’, in Possamai, A, Sociology of Religion for Generartions X and Y, London: Equinox. pp. 153-166.

Quijano, A. (2000), ‘Colonialidad del poder, eurocentrismo y América Latina’. In E. Lander (Ed.), La colonialidad del saber: eurocentrismo y ciencias sociales. Perspectivas Latinoamericanas, Buenos Aires: CLACSO, pp. 122–141.

Said, E. W. (1978), Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books.

Salas, R. (2003), Etica intercultural, (re)lecturas del pensamiento latinoamericano. Santiago: UCSH.

Sharot, S. (2002) ‘Beyond Christianity: A Critique of the Rational Choice Theory of Religion from a Weberian and Comparative Religions Perspective’, Sociology of Religion 63(4), pp. 427–454. DOI: 10.2307/3712301

Schmidt, V.H. (2006), ‘Multiple Modernities or Varieties of Modernity?’, Current Sociology, 2006 54: 1, pp. 77–97.

Smith, C and Vaidyanathan, B. (2011), ‘Multiple Modernities and Religion’, in Meister, C. (ed) ,The Oxford Handbook of Religious Diversity, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. Ch.19, pp. 250-265.

Spickard, J. (1998). ‘Ethnocentrism, Social Theory, and Non-Western Sociologies of Religion: Towards a Confucian Alternative.’ International Sociology 13/2, pp. 173–194.

Spickard, J. (2001). ‘Tribes and Cities: Towards an Islamic Sociology of Religion.’ Social Compass, 48/1, pp. 103–116.

Touraine, A. (1995), Producción de la sociedad. México: UNAM-IFAL.

Touraine, A. (2006), Los movimientos sociales, Revista Colombiana de Sociología, No 27. pp. 255–278.

Vrijhof, P. and Vaardenburg, J.J. (1979), Official and Popular Religion: Analysis of a Theme for Religious Studies. The Hague: Mouton Publishers.

Weber, M. (1951) (original 1915), The Religion of China, Confucianism and Taoism, Glencoe, Illinois: the Free Press.

Weber, M. (1993), The Sociology of Religion, Beacon Press, Boston.

Yamane, D. (1997), ‘Secularization on Trial: In Defense of a Neosecularization Paradigm’, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Mar., 1997), pp. 109–122.

Yeung, Hing Kau (2003). ‘Chinese Religions and Science.’ Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. 2003. Retrieved September 27, 2016.

Creative Commons License

Esta obra está bajo una licencia internacional Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0.

Derechos de autor 2020 Cristián Parker


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.