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Instituições e Políticas Moldando o Desenvolvimento Industrial: uma nota introdutória
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Palavras-chave

Política industrial. Desenvolvimento industrial. Instituições.

Como Citar

CIMOLI, Mario; DOSI, Giovanni; NELSON, Richard R.; STIGLITZ, Joseph. Instituições e Políticas Moldando o Desenvolvimento Industrial: uma nota introdutória. Revista Brasileira de Inovação, Campinas, SP, v. 6, n. 1, p. 55–85, 2009. DOI: 10.20396/rbi.v6i1.8648941. Disponível em: https://periodicos.sbu.unicamp.br/ojs/index.php/rbi/article/view/8648941. Acesso em: 20 jun. 2024.

Resumo

Neste trabalho, elaborado como introdução às contribuições da força-tarefa sobre Políticas Industriais e Desenvolvimento, Iniciativa para o Diálogo sobre Políticas (Columbia University, Nova York), discutimos o papel das instituições e políticas no processo de desenvolvimento. Iniciamos argumentando sobre o quanto a terminologia das “falhas de mercado” pode ser enganosa para avaliar a necessidade de políticas públicas por fazer essa avaliação com base num padrão de medida que é raramente observado em qualquer mercado. Muito mais próximos da evidência empírica, nós argumentamos que mesmo quando o mercado prevalece como forma de governança de interações econômicas, estas se encontram entranhadas numa rica malha de instituições não-mercado. Isto se aplica de modo geral e particularmente à produção e uso de informação e conhecimento tecnológico. Neste trabalho nos baseamos nesse entranhamento institucional fundamental de processos de aprendizado tecnológico, tanto em países desenvolvidos quanto em países que buscam alcançar a fronteira tecnológica (catching-up), e tentamos identificar alguns ingredientes robustos de políticas que têm historicamente acompanhado a co-evolução de capacitações tecnológicas, formas de organização das empresas, e mecanismos de incentivos. Todas as experiências bem-sucedidas de catching-up e, às vezes, superação dos líderes econômicos prevalecentes – a começar pelos Estados Unidos em relação à Grã-Bretanha – envolveram “construção institucional” e medidas de políticas que afetam a imitação tecnológica, a organização de indústrias, padrões de comércio internacional, e direitos de propriedade intelectual. Argumentamos que isto certamente se aplica hoje também, mesmo no contexto de uma economia mundial “globalizada”.
https://doi.org/10.20396/rbi.v6i1.8648941
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