Duração de pausas em conversas espontâneas de parkinsonianos


  • Lourenço Chacon Universidade Estadual Paulista
  • Geralyn Schulz George Washington University






Variability in speech features of Parkinsonians has been described in studies on Parkinsonism. The purpose of this study was to investigate some factories involved in this variability, specifically in pause duration. Speech simples containing pauses were extracted from spontaneous conversations of two male Brazilian Parkinsonians.  Four hundred twenty four pauses (subject one = 130; subject two = 294) were collected, measured and classified according to: (1) degree of duration (very short, short, middle, long and very long); (2) position at the beginning (initial) or in the development (internal) of the subject’s conversational turn; and (3) presence of silence only (unfilled), sound (filled) and combinations between silence and sound (mixed). Great variability in pause duration occurred in both inter and intrasubjects. Except for internal middle pauses, subject one had shorter mean values in pause duration. Filled pauses had shorter mean duration for the two subjects when compared to unfilled ones; however, mixed pauses had longer values for subjects two than subject one. Factors such as cognitive organization, affective states, articulatory difficulties, semantic aspects of enunciation and conversational strategies were linked to the variability in pause duration presented by the 2 subjects.


Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Lourenço Chacon, Universidade Estadual Paulista

Atualmente é professor efetivo da Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho.

Geralyn Schulz, George Washington University

George Washington University, D.C. GW with expertise in Neurology, Speech and Language Pathology.


ABAURRE, M. B. M. (1991). Ritmi dell’óralità e ritmi dela scritura.in> ORSOLINI, M. & PONTECORVO, C. La costruzione del texto scritto nei bambini. Rome: La Nuova Italia.

ADOLPHS, R.; SCHUL, R & RANEL, D. (1998). Intact recognition of facial emotion in Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychology, v. 12, n. 1, pp. 253-258.

BAGUNUÁ, J. & SANGORRÍN, J. (1992). Disartrias. In: PENA, C. J. Manual de Fonoaudiologia. Porto Alegre, Artes Médicas.

BARBOSA, E. R. (1989). Parkinsonismo. Revista Brasileira de Neurologia, (Brazil), v. 25, n. 1, pp. 27-32.

BARIK, H. C. (1968). On defining juncture pauses: a note n Boomer’s “Hesitation and grammatical encoding”. Language and Speech, v. 11, pp. 156-159.

BENKA, T.; BOSCH, S. & ANDREE, B. (1988). A Study of emotional processing in Parkinson’s disease. Brain and Cognition, v. 38. n. 1, pp. 36-52.

BLONDER, L. X.; GUR, R. E. & GUR, R. C. (1989). The effects of right and left hemiparkinsonism on prosody. Brain and language, v. 36, n. 2, pp. 193-207.

BOOMER, D. S. (1965). Hesitation and grammatical encoding. Language and speech, v. 8, pp. 148-158.

BOUHUYS, A. L. & MEULEN, W. R. E. H. M. V. D. (1984). Speech timing measures of severity, psychomotor retardation, and agitation in endogenously depressed patients. Journal of Communication Disorders, v. 17, pp. 277-288.

CAEKEBEKE, J. F. V.; JENNEKENS-SCHINKEL, A.; VAN DER LINDEN, M. E.; BURUMA, O. J. S. & ROOS, R. A. C. (1991). The interpretation of dysprosody in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurology , Neurosurgery, and psychiatry, v. 54, n. 2. Pp. 145-148.

CAGLIARI, L. C. (1992). Prosódia: algumas funções dos supra-segmentos. Cadernos de Estudos Linguísticos. v. 23, pp.137-151.

CANTER, G. J. (1963). Speech characteristics of patients with Parkinson’s disease: I intensity, pitch and duration. J Speech Hear. Dis., v. 28, pp. 221-148.

CANTER, G. J. & VAN LANCKER, D. R. (1985). Disturbances of the temporal organization of speech following bilateral thalamic surgery in a patient with Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Communication Disorders, v. 18, pp. 329-349.

CHACON, L. (1998) Ritmo da escrita: uma organização do heterogêneo da linguagem. São Paulo (Brazil): Martins Fontes.

CLEMER. E. J. (1980). Psycholinguistic aspects of pauses and temporal patterns in schizophrenic speech. Journal o Psycholinguistic Research, v. 9, n. 2, pp. 161-185.

CORRÊA, M. L. G. (1994). Pontuação: sobre seu ensino e concepção. Leitura: teoria e prática. Campinas (Brazil), v. 24, pp. 52-65.

CRITCHLEY, E. M. R. (1981). Speech disorders of Parkinsonism: a review. Journal of Neurology. Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, v. 44, n. 9, pp. 751-758.

DARKINS, A. D.; FROMKIN, V. A. & BENSON, D. F. (1988). A characterization of the prosodic loss in Parkinson’s Disease. Brain and Language, v. 34, pp. 315-327.

DARLEY, F. L.; ARONSON, A. E. & BROWN, J. R. (1969). Cluters of deviant speech dimensions n the disartrias. J. Speech Hear. Res., vol. 12, pp. 462-469.

DE ANGELIS, E. C. (1995). Efetividade da fonoterapia na doença de Parkinson: medidas fonatórias, intensidade pré e pós fonoterapia. São Paulo (Brazil). Dissertação (Mestrado em Distúrbios da Comunicação) – Universidade Federal de São Paulo –Escola Paulista de Medicina.

GOLDMAN-EISLER, F. (1985a). Speech production and the predicability of words in context. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. v. 10, pp. 96-106.

GOLDMAN-EISLER, F. (1985b). The predictability of words in context and the length of pauses in speech. Language and Speech. v. 1, pp. 226-231.

GOLDMAN-EISLER, F. (1961). A comparative study of two hesitation phenomena. Language and Speech. v.4, pp. 226-231.

GREDEN , J. F. & CARROLL. B. J. (1980). Decrease in speech pause times with treatment of endogenous depression. Biological Psychiatry, v. 15. n. 4, pp. 575-587.

HAMMEN. V.L.: YORKSTON. K.M. & MINIFIE. F.D. (1994). Effects of temporal alterations on speech intelligibility in Parkinsonian Dysarthria. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, v. 37. pp. 244-253.

HARDY, P. JOUVENT, R. & WIDLÓCHER, D. (1984). Speech pause time and the retardation rating scale for depression (ERD): towards a reciprocal validation. Journal of Affective Disorders, v. 6, pp. 123-127.

HENDERSON, A.; GOLDMAN-EISLER , F. & SKARBEK. A. (1965). Temporal patterns of cognitive activity and breath control in speech. Language and Speech , v. 8, pp. 236-242.

HENDERSON. A.; GOLDMAN-ElSLER, F. & SKARBEK, A. (1966). Sequential temporal patterns in spontaneous speech. Language and Speech , v. 9, pp. 207-216.

HIRD, K. & KIRSNER. K. (1993). Dysprosody following acquired neurogenic impairment. Brain and Language, v. 45, n. 1, pp. 46-60.

HOFMAN. S. ( 1990). Aspects of language in Parkinsonism. Advances in Neurology. v. 53. pp. 327-333. HOFMAN, S. & STREIFLER. M . (1984). Disorders of verbal expression in Parkinsonism. Adcances in Neurology. v. 40. pp. 385-393.

HOLDEN, M. H. & MACGINITIE. W. H. (1972). Children’s conceptions of word boundaries in speech and print. Journal of Educational Psychology. v. 3. pp. 551-557.

ILES, J.; METTER. E. J.; HANSON, W. R. & IRITANI. S. (1988). Language production in Parkinson·s disease: acoustic and linguistic considerations. Brain and Language, v. 33. n. 1. pp. 146-160.

KENT. R.D. (1982). Prosodic disturbance and neurologic lesion. Brain and Language. v. 15. pp. 259-291.

LAY, C. H. & PAIVIO. A. (1969). The effects of task difficulty and anxiety on hesitations in speech. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. v. 1. pp. 25-37.

LE DORZE, G.: DIONNE, L.: RYALLS, J.; JULIEN, M. & OUELLET. L. (1992). The effects of speech and language therapy for a case of dysat1hria associated with Parkinson's disease. European Journal of Disorders of Communication , v. 27, n. 4, pp. 313-324.

LEVIN. H. & SILVERMAN, I. (1965). Hesitation phenomena in children's speech. Language and speech , v. 8, pp. 67-85.

LEVIN. H. & SILVERMAN. I. & FORD, B. L. (1967). Hesitation in children 's speech during explanation and description. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. v. 6. pp. 560-564.

LOGEMANN, J. A.; FISCHER, H. B.; BOSCHES B. & BLONSKY, E. R. (1978). Frequenceand c-occurrence of vocal tract dysfunction in the speech of a large sample of Parkinson patients. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. v. 43. Pp. 47-57.

LUDLOW. C. L.; CONNOR. N. P. & BASSICH. C. J. (1987). Speech timing in Parkinson's and Huntington 's disease ( 1987). Brain and Language, v. 32, pp. 195-214.

LURIA. A. R. (1972). Aphasia reconsidered. Cortex, v. 8. pp. 34-40.

LURIA. A. R. (1988). O desenvolvimento da escrita na criança. In: VIGOTSKI, L.S. et al. Linguagem, desenvolvimento e aprendizagem. São Paulo (Brazil): Ícone/EDUSP, pp. 143-189.

MAHL, G. F. (1959). Exploring emotional states by content analysis. In: POOL. I. DES. Trends in content analysis. Urbana (IL): University of Illinois Press, pp. 89-130.

MARSHALL, R. C. & TOMPKINS, C. A. (1982). Verbal self-correction behaviors of fluent and nonfluent aphasic sujects. Brain and Language, v. 15, pp. 292-306.

MESCHONNIC, H. (1982). Critique du rythme: anthropologie historique du langage. Paris: Verdier.

METTER , E. J. & HANSON , W.R. (1986). Clinical and acoustical variability in hypokinetic dysarthria. Journal of Communication Disorders , v. 19, pp. 347-366.

MONRAD-KRON, G. H. (1957). The third element of speech: prosody in the neuro-psychiatric clinic. Journal of Mental Science , v. 103, pp. 326-32.

PICKETT, E.R.; KUNIHOLM , E.; PROTOPAPAS, A.; FRIEDMAN, J . & LIEBERMAN, P. (1998). Selective speech motor, syntax and cognitive deficits associated with bilateral damage to the putamen and the head of the caudate nucleus: a case study. Neuropsychologia, v. 36, n. 2, pp.173-188.

PITCAIRN. T.K.; CLEIME, S.; GRA Y, J. M. & PENTLAND. B. (1990). Impressions of parkinsonian patients from their recorded voices. British Journal of Disorders of Communication, v. 25, n. 1, pp. 85-92.


POPE, B.; BLASS, T.; SIEGMAN, A. W. & RAHER , J. (1970). Anxiety and depression in speech. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. v. 35, n. 1, pp. 128-133.

PRESTON, J. M. & GARDNER, R. C. (1967). Dimensions of oral and written language fluency. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, v. 6, pp. 936-945.

QUIRK, R.: GREENBAUN, S.; LEECH, G. & SVARTVIK, J. (1985). Prosody and punctuation. In:_______. A comprehensive grammar of the English Language. London/New York: Longman. pp. 1442-1446.

RAMIG, LO.; COUNTRYMAN, S.; THOMPSON, L.L. & HORII, Y. (1995). Comparison of two forms of intensive speech treatment for Parkinson disease. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research , v. 38, pp. 1232-1251.

REICH, S.S. ( 1980). Significance of pauses speech perception. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research , v. 9. n. 4, pp. 379-389.

REYNOLDS, A. & PAIVIO, A. (1968). Cognitive and emotional determinants of speech. Canadian Journal. Psycholoxy, v. 22, n. 3, pp. 164-175.

ROCHESTER , S.R. (1973). The significance of pauses in spontaneous speech. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research , v. 2, n. 1 , pp. 51-81.

ROWE, M. B. (1974). Pausing phenomena: influence on the quality of instruction. Journal ofPsycholinguistic Research, v. 3, n. 3, pp. 203-224.

SCOTT, S. & CAIRD, F. (1983). Speech therapy for Parkinson’s disease. Joumal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, v. 46, pp. 140-144.

SCOTT, S. & CAIRD, F. (1984a). The response of the apparent receptive speech disorder of Parkin son 's disease to speech therapy. Journal to (Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, v. 47, pp. 302-304.

SCOTT, S. & CAIRD, F. (1984b). Evidence for an apparent sensory speech disorder in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurology. Neurosurgery. and Psychiatry, v. 47, pp. 840-843.

SHEA, B.R.: DRUMMOND. S. S.; METZER. W. S. & KRUEGER , K. M. (1993). Effect of Selegiline on speech performance in Parkinson’s disease. Folia Phoniatrica, v. 45, pp. 40-46.

SIEGMAN, A. W. & POPE. B. (1965). Personality variables associated with productivity and verbal fluency in the initial interview. Proceedings of the 73rd Annual convention of the American Psychological Association. Washington D. C.. pp. 273-274.

TANNENBAUM , P. H.; WILLIAMS. F. & HILLIER , C. S. (1965). Word predictability in the environments of hesitations. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior. v. 4. pp. 134-140.

TAYLOR. I. (1969). Content and structure in sentence production. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. v. 8. pp. 170-175.

TWEED, J. P.; LANGER. K. G. & MCDOWELL, F. A. (1982). The effect of semantic relations on the memory deficit associated with Parkinson's disease. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology. v. 4. pp. 235-247.

UZIEL. A.: BOHE. M.: CADILHAC. J. & PASSOUANT P. (1975). Les troubles de la voix et de la parole dans les syndromes parkinsoniens. Folia Phoniatrica , v. 27. pp. l66-76.

VOLKMANN, J.; HEFTER, H.; LANGE. H. W. & FREUND, H-J. (1992). Impairment of temporal organization of speech in basal ganglia diseases. Brain and language. v. 43, pp. 386-399.




Como Citar

CHACON, L.; SCHULZ, G. Duração de pausas em conversas espontâneas de parkinsonianos. Cadernos de Estudos Linguísticos, Campinas, SP, v. 39, p. 51–71, 2012. DOI: 10.20396/cel.v39i0.8636938. Disponível em: https://periodicos.sbu.unicamp.br/ojs/index.php/cel/article/view/8636938. Acesso em: 3 dez. 2022.