Temporal organization of speech utterance: a c/d model perspective


  • Osamu Fujimura Ohio State University






Este artigo discute o modelo C/D na qualidade de quadro teórico lingüístico visando a descrever as características temporais de enunciados com referência à organização prosódica geral. Um trem de pulsos sílaba/fronteira, com magnitudes controladas, representa o esqueleto da função de base de um enunciado, determinando completamente sua organização métrica. Contornos vocálicos, tonais e demais contornos fonéticos representam a melodia da função de base. O padrão temporal de sílabas individuais é calculado pela distribuição de suas magnitudes, levando-se em consideração a intervenção de fronteiras com magnitudes controladas. A magnitude da sílaba é realizada como duração juntamente com outras propriedades fonéticas tais como um componente de abertura da mandíbula e forças incrementais de gestos vocálicos e consonantais. Além disso, a constituição de um padrão prosódico envolve um controle tonal independente. A fonologia lexical pode especificar características acentuais (magnitude da sílaba), tonais ou ambas, dependendo da língua, mas toda língua usa as duas características ao nível da frase. A natureza inerentemente dinâmica da fala é fundamental nesta nova abordagem.


Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Osamu Fujimura, Ohio State University

The Ohio State University, Dept. Speech & Hearing Sc.


ALBANO, E.; FRANCOZO, E.; COELHO, O.; ARANTES, P.; BASSO, R. & ROCES, L. in press. The dynamics of V-to-V phonotactics: Lexical statistics and connectionist simulation. Proc. LP2002.

BARBOSA, P.A. (2002). Explaining cross-linguistic rhythmic variability via a coupled-oscillator model of rhythm production, Proc. Speech Prosody 2002, 163-6.

BARBOSA, P.A. & ARANTES, P. in press. Investigation of non-pitch-accented phrases in Brazilian Portuguese: No evidence favoring stress shift. Proc. ICPhS 2003.

BECKMAN, M.E. (1986). Stress and Non-Stress Accent. Dordrecht: Foris.

BOLINGER, D.L. (1958). A theory of pitch accent in English. Word 14, 109-49.

BOROWSKY, T. (1986). Topics in the lexical phonology of English. Doctoral dissertation, U. Mass, Amherst.

BROWMAN, C.P. & GOLDSTEIN, L. (1988). Some notes on syllable structure in articulatory phonology. Phonetica 45, 140-55.

BROWMAN, C.P. & GOLDSTEIN, L.M. (1992). Articulatory phonology: An overview. Phonetica, 49, 155-180.

BYRD, D. & SALTZMAN, E. (2003). The elastic phrase: Modeling the dynamics of boundary-adjacent lengthening. J. Phonetics 31, 149-80.

CHOMSKY, N. & HALLE, M. (1968). The Sound Pattern of English. New York: Harper & Row.

CLEMENTS, G.N. (1990). The role of sonority cycle in core syllabification. In J. Kingston and M. E. Beckman (eds.), Papers in Laboratory Phonology I: Between the Grammar and the Physics of Speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 283-333.

CRYSTAL, T. & HOUSE, A.S. (1997). A note on the durations of American English consonants. In S. Kiritani, H. Hirose & H. Fujisaki (eds.), Speech Production and Language: In Honor of Osamu Fujimura. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 195-213. ERICKSON, D. (1998). Effects of contrastive emphasis on jaw opening. Phonetica 55, 147-69.

ERICKSON, D. (2002). Articulation of extreme formant patterns for emphasized vowels. Phonetica, 59, 134-49.

ERICKSON, D., FUJIMURA, O. & PARDO, B. (1998). Articulatory correlates of prosodic control: Emotion and emphasis. Language & Speech 41, 395-413.

FUJIMURA, O. (1970). Current issues in experimental phonetics. In R. Jakobson & S. Kawamoto, (eds.), Studies in General and Oriental Linguistics. Tokyo: TEC Co., pp. 109-30.

FUJIMURA, O. (1976). Syllable as concatenated demisyllables and affixes. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 59, Supplement 1, S55 (abstract).

FUJIMURA, O. (1979). An analysis of English syllables as cores and affixes. Zeitschrift für Phonetik, Sprachwissenschaft und Kommunikationsforschung 32, 471-476.

FUJIMURA, O. (1987). A linear model of speech timing. In R. Channon & L. Shockey (eds.), For Ilse Lehiste. Dordrecht: Foris Publ., pp.109-23.

FUJIMURA, O. (1990). Methods and goals of speech production research. Language & Speech 33,195-258.

FUJIMURA, O. (1992). Phonology and phonetics -- A syllable-based model of articulatory organization. J. Acoust. Soc. Japan (E) 13, 39-48.

FUJIMURA, O. (1994a). C/D model: A computational model of phonetic implementation. In E. Ristad (ed.), Language Computations. DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science, Vol. 17, pp. 1-20. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society.

FUJIMURA, O. (1994b). Syllable timing computation in the C/D model. Proc. ICSLP 94, Yokohama, Vol. 2, pp. 519-22.

FUJIMURA, O. (1995). Prosodic organization of speech based on syllables: The C/D model. Proc. ICPhS 95, Vol. 3, pp. 10-17.

FUJIMURA, O. (1996). Syllable structure constraints: A C/D model perspective. In B. Agbayani & N. Harada (eds.), Proc. SWOT-II, UCI Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 2, Irvine, CA, pp. 59-74.

FUJIMURA, O. (1998). Neuromuscular simulation and linguistic control. Bulletin de la Communication Parlée (U. Grenoble) 4, 59-63.

FUJIMURA, O. (2000a). The C/D model and prosodic control of articulatory behavior. Phonetica 57, 128-38.

FUJIMURA, O. (2000b). C/D model prediction of CVC segmental duration for varied syllable prominence. The Phonetician 82, 9-21.

FUJIMURA, O. (2000c). Rhythmic organization and signal characteristics of speech. Proc. ICSLP 2000, Vol. I, 29-35.

FUJIMURA, O. in press. Stress and tone revisited: Skeletal vs. melodic and lexical vs. phrasal. In S. Kaji (ed.), Proc. International Symposium on Cross-Linguistic Studies of Tonal Phenomena, Historical Development, Phonetics of Tone, and Descriptive Studies. Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, ILCAA.

FUJIMURA, O.; CIMINO, A. & SAWADA, M. (1995). Voice quality control within a sentence: Expressive effects of source spectral envelope change. In O. Fujimura and M. Hirano (eds.), Vocal Fold Physiology: Voice Quality Control, pp. 201-15.

FUJIMURA, O. & ERICKSON, D. 1997. Acoustic phonetics. In W. J. Hardcastle & Laver, J. (eds.), The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences. Oxford: Blackwell Pub.

FUJIMURA, O. & WILLIAMS, J.C. (1999). Syllable concatenators in English, Japanese, and Spanish. In O. Fujimura, B. Joseph, & B. Palek (eds.), Proceedings of LP’98. Prague: Charles University Press, pp. 461-98.

FUJISAKI, H. & HIROSE, K. (1982). Modeling the dynamic characteristics of voice fundamental frequency with application to analysis and synthesis of intonation. Proc. 13th International Congress of Linguists, pp. 57-70.

HALLE, M. (1997). On stress and accent in Indo-European. Language 73, 275-313. HARAGUCHI, S. (1999). A theory of the syllable. In O. Fujimura, B. Joseph, & B. Palek (eds.), Proceedings of LP’98. Prague: Charles University Press, pp. 691-715.

HATTORI, S. (1961). Prosodeme, syllable structure and laryngeal phonemes. In Studies in Descriptive and Applied Linguistics. Tokyo: International Christian University, pp. 1-27.

HAYATA, T. (1997). The bearer of an accent is a boundary rather than a segment (in Japanese). Gogaku Kyooiku Kenkyuu Ronsoo (Studies in Language Education) 15, pp. 233-48.

HAYATA, T. (1999). Onchoo no Taiporojii (Typology of Tonal Systems) Tokyo: Taishukan Pub.

HAYES, B. (1984). The phonology of rhythm in English. Linguistic Inquiry 15, 33-74.

JAKOBSON, R.; FANT, G. & HALLE, M. (1963) (3rd Edition). Preliminaries to Speech Analysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

KRAKOW, R.A. (1999). Physiological organization of syllables: A review. J. Phonetics 27, 23-54.

LADEFOGED, P. (2001). A Course in Phonetics (4th Edition). Orlando, FL: Harcourt.

LAVER, J. (1980). The Phonetic Description of Voice Quality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

LEBEN, W.R. (1999). Weak vowels and vowel sequences in Kwa: Sounds that phonology can’t handle. In O. Fujimura, B. Joseph & B. Palek (eds.), Proceedings of LP’98. Prague: Charles University Press, pp. 717-732.

LEBEN, W. & FUJIMURA, O. (2001). Extra-short vowels in West African languages. In B. Palek & O. Fujimura (eds.), Proc. LP2000. Prague: Charles University Press, pp. 83-94.

LEHISTE, I. (1970). Suprasegmentals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

LEHISTE, I. (1980). Phonetic manifestation of syntactic structure in English. Annual Bulletin of the Research Institute of Logopedics and Phoniatrics (U. Tokyo )14, 1-28.

LIBERMAN, M.Y. & PRINCE, A. (1977). On stress and linguistic rhythm. Linguistic Inquiry 8, 249-336.

LINDBLOM, B. (1963). Spectrographic study of vowel reduction. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 35, 1773-81.

LINDBLOM, B.; SUSSMAN, H.M.; MODARRESI, G. & BURLINGAME, E. (2003). The trough effect: Implications for speech motor programming. Phonetica 59, 245-62.

MACCHI, M.J. (1988). Labial articulation patterns associated with segmental features and syllable structure in English. Phonetica 45, 109-21.

MALÉCOT, A. (1955). An experimental study of force of articulation. Studia Linguistica (Lund U.), 3544.

MCCARTHY, J. (1988). Feature geometry and dependency, a review. Phonetica 43, 84-108.

MENEZES, C. (2003). Rhythmic Pattern of American English: An Articulatory and Acoustic Study. Doctoral dissertation, Dept. Speech and Hearing Science, The Ohio State University.

MENEZES, C.; PARDO, B.; ERICKSON, D. & FUJIMURA, O. (2002). Changes in syllable magnitude and timing due to repeated correction. Speech Communication 40, 71-85.

MITCHELL, C.J. (2000). Analysis of Articulatory Movement Patterns according to the Converter/Distributor Model. Master’s thesis, Dept. Speech & Hearing Science, The Ohio State University.

MITCHELL, C.; MENEZES, C.; WILLIAMS, J.C.; PARDO, B.; ERICKSON, D. & FUJIMURA, O. (2000). Changes in syllable and boundary strengths due to irritation. In R. Cowie, E. Douglas-Cowie & M. Schröder (eds.), Proceedings of ISCA Workshop on Speech and Emotion. Belfast: Textflow, pp. 98-103.

NOOTEBOOM, S. (1997). Prosody of speech: Melody and rhythm. In W. J. Hardcastle & J. Laver (eds.), The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences. Oxford: Blackwell Pub.

ÖHMAN, S.E.G. (1967). Numerical model of coarticulation. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41, 310-20.

PIERREHUMBERT, J.B. (1989). A preliminary study of the consequences of intonation for the voice source. Speech Transmission Laboratory Quarterly Progress and Status Report 4, 23-36.

POSER, W. (1984). The Phonetics and Phonology of Tone and Intonation in Japanese. Doctoral dissertation, MIT.

SAGEY, Elizabeth. (1986). The Representation of Features and Relations in Nonlinear Phonology. Doctoral dissertation, MIT. (New York: Garland Press 1991).

SPROAT, R. & FUJIMURA, O. (1993). Allophonic variation in English /l/ and its implications for phonetic implementation. J. Phonetics 21, 291-311.

STERNBERG, S.; KNOLL, R. L.; MONSELL, S. & WRIGHT, C.E. (1988). Motor programs and hierarchical organization in the control of rapid speech. Phonetica 45, 177-97.

STEVENS, K. N. in press. Acoustic and perceptual evidence for universal phonological features. Proc. ICPhS 2003.

TITZE, I. 1994. Principle of Voice Production. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

UMEDA, N. 1975. Vowel duration in American English. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 58, 434-45.

UMEDA, N. 1977. Consonantal duration in American English. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 61, 846-58.

WILHELMS-TRICARICO, R. 1995. Physiological modeling of speech production: Methods for modeling soft-tissue articulators. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 3085-98.

WILLIAMS, J. C. in press. Syllable-based phonology of Ibero-Romance languages. Proc. ICPhS 2003.




Como Citar

FUJIMURA, O. Temporal organization of speech utterance: a c/d model perspective. Cadernos de Estudos Linguísticos, Campinas, SP, v. 43, p. 9–36, 2011. DOI: 10.20396/cel.v43i0.8637147. Disponível em: https://periodicos.sbu.unicamp.br/ojs/index.php/cel/article/view/8637147. Acesso em: 30 jun. 2022.