ResumoO músculo esquelético humano é um maleável tecido orgânico que apresenta como principal característica uma eximia capacidade adaptativa neurofisiológica, metabólica e morfológica, que se expressa diante de estímulos advindos do exercício físico. No âmbito do treinamento físico, podem-se destacar as atividades de caráter aeróbio, que promovem o aperfeiçoamento funcional das fibras de contração lenta (TIPO IA), por meio do aprimoramento da capacidade respiratória das mitocôndrias, viabilizado pelo aumento do número e tamanho destas; anaeróbio, que tem os incrementos de força, potência e a ocorrência da hipertrofia muscular como suas principais respostas representantes; e o treinamento concorrente, que ao integrar os dois citados treinos em um mesmo plano regular de exercício físico, promove respostas adaptativas de menor amplitude quando comparadas às possibilitadas pelos referidos realizados isoladamente. Em adição, evidencia-se que na atualidade a biologia molecular se encontra como uma importante ferramenta para o estudo das respostas adaptativas neuromusculares, onde o conhecimento da relação estímulo físico, expressão gênica e formação e proliferação celular, concretiza-se como a base que fundamenta os procedimentos desta área.
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