A briefing game for school building design
The architectural design process is complex, as new technical, social, environmental and economical requirements are introduced, and this very scenario is applicable for school buildings. The quality of a school building depends on known design criteria, professional knowledge and feedback from building performance assessments. To attain high performance school buildings, the design process should add a multidisciplinary team via an integrated process. This article presents a design tool to structure a school building design briefing process. A participatory architectural programming phase is advocated and tested through a focal group, supported by a game called “Shuffle the School Building Design Deck” (SSBDD). The content of SSBDD and application procedure are based on known facts, needs and global concepts for learning environments in the twenty-first century. The briefing game considers the specific context of Brazil. Validation tests show positive results for productive architectural programming for school buildings. SSBDD has potential for global contexts, including translations for other building types.
Azevedo, G. A. (2012, October). Sobre o papel da arquitetura escolar no cotidiano da educação: Análise das interações pessoa-ambiente para a transformação qualitativa do lugar pedagógico. Paper presented at the XIV ENTAC – Encontro Nacional de Tecnologia do Ambiente Construído, Juiz de Fora, MG.
Azevedo, G. A. N., Faria, J. R. F., & Pereira, F. R. Q. (2015, October). Do espaço escolar ao território educativo: O lugar da arquitetura na conversa da escola de educação integral com a cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Paper presented at the VII Projetar – Originalidade, ciatividade e inovação do projeto contemporâneo: ensino, pesquisa e prática, Natal, RN.
Barrett, P., Davies, F., Yufan Zhang, Y., & Barrett, L. (2016). The holistic impact of classroom spaces on learning in specific subjects. Environment and Behavior, 49(4), 1-27.
Bion, W. R. (2013). Experiences in groups: And other papers. New York, NY: Routledge.
Bjögvinsson, E., Ehn, P., & Hillgren, P. A. (2012). Design things and design thinking: Contemporary participatory design challenges. Design Issues, 28(3), 101-116.
Bradbeer, C. (2016). Working together in the space-between. In W. Imms, B. Cleveland, K. Fisher (Eds.), Evaluating Learning Environments: Snapshots of emerging issues, methods and knowledge (pp. 75-90). Melbourne: Sense.
Brandt, E. (2006). Designing exploratory design games: A framework for participation in participatory design? Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on Participatory Design: Expanding Boundaries in Design, New York, 1, 57-66.
Brasil. Senado Federal. (1996). Lei nº 9.394, de 20 dezembro de 1996. Estabelece as diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional (LDB). Available from http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/l9394.htm.
Brasil. Fórum Nacional de Educação. (2014). Educação brasileira indicadores e desafios. Brasília, DF.
Bruns, B., Evans, D., & Luque, J. (2011). Achieving world-class education in Brazil: The next agenda. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Cleveland, B., & Fisher, K. (2014). The evaluation of physical learning environments: A critical review of the literature. Learning Environments Research, 17(1), 1-28.
Deed, C., & Lesko, T. (2015). Unwalling the classroom: Teacher reaction and adaptation. Learning Environments Research, 18(2), 217-231.
Delbecq, A. L., & Ven, A. V. D. (1975). Group Techniques for Programme Planning. Glenview: Longman Higher Education.
Deliberador, M. S. (2016). Parâmetros da arquitetura escolar e o jogo de cartas como ferramenta de apoio ao desenvolvimento do programa arquitetônico. Doctoral thesis, University of Campinas, Campinas.
Design, I. O. C., Furniture, V. S., & Design, B. M. (2010). The Third Teacher: 79 Ways You Can Use Design to Transform Teaching & Learning. New York: Abrams.
Dovey, K., & Fisher, K. (2014). Designing for adaptation: The school as socio-spatial assemblage. The Journal of Architecture, 19(1), 43-63.
Dudek, M. (2008). Schools and Kindergartens. Basel: Birkhäuser.
Duke, R. D. (1974). Gaming: the future’s language. New York: Sage.
Fundação para o Desenvolvimento da Educação. (2010). Relatório de Atividades FDE 2007-2010. São Paulo. Available from: http://file.fde.sp.gov.br/portalfde/Arquivo/RelatoriodeGestao2007.2010.pdf.
Fisher, K. (2007). Pedagogy and architecture. Architecture, 96(5), 55-58.
Fisher, K. (2016). The Translational Design of Learning Environments. In K. Fisher (Ed.), The translational design of schools (pp. 3-25). Melbourne: Sense.
Gislason, N. (2010). Architectural design and the learning environment: A framework for school design research. Learning Environments Research, 13(2), 127-145.
Gombrich, E. H. (2000). The uses of images. London: Phaidon Press.
Gomes da Silva, V., Kowaltowski, D. C. C. K., & Deliberador, M. S. (2016). Where do architectural design ideas come from? A sustainability and bioclimatic-oriented teaching experience. Paper presented at the Strategies, Stakeholder, Success Factors. Hamburg.
Habraken, N. J., & Gross, M. D. (1988). Concept design games. Design Studies, 9(3), 150-158.
Hassanain, M., & Juaim, M. (2013). Modeling knowledge for architectural programming. Journal of Architectural Engineering, 19(2), 101-111.
Hershberger, R. G. (1999). Architectural Programming & Predesign Manager. New York: McGrawHill Professional.
Higgins, S., Hall, E., Wall, K., Woolner, P., & McCaughey, C. (2005). The impact of school environments: A literature review. London: Design Council.
Hofmann, S. (2014). Architecture is Participation – Die Baupiloten: Methods and Projects. Berlin: Jovis.
Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira. (2016). Indicadores educacionais. Brasília, DF. Available from http://portal.inep.gov.br/indicadoreseducacionais.
Kowaltowski, D. C. C. K. (2011). Arquitetura escolar: O projeto do ambiente de ensino. São Paulo: Oficina de Textos.
Kowaltowski, D. C. C. K., & Deliberador, M. S. (2014). Understanding school design processes. Journal of Design Research, 12(4), 280.
Kowaltowski, D. C. C. K., & Deliberador, M. S. (2018). Importância dos agentes para a arquitetura escolar: Aplicação de jogo de apoio ao processo participativo. Ambiente Construído, 18(2), 273-288.
Kumlin, R. (1995). Architectural programming: Creative techniques for design professionals. McGraw-Hill Professional.
Lee, Y. (2008). Design participation tactics: The challenges and new roles for designers in the co-design process. Co-Design, 4(1), 31-50.
Lippman, P. C. (2010). Evidence-Based design of elementary and secondary schools: A Responsive approach to creating learning environments. New York: Wiley.
Luck, R. (2003). Dialogue in participatory design. Design Studies, 24(6), 523-535.
Malamed, C. (2011). Visual language for designers: Principles for creating graphics that people understand. Beverly: Rockport.
Martin, S. H. (2006). The classroom environment and children’s performance-is there a relationship? In C. Spencer, & M. Blades (Eds.), Children and their environment: learning, using and designing spaces (pp. 91-107). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Martins, V. R., Oliveira, V. B., Rheingantz, P. A., Azevedo, G. A., & Tângari, V. R. (2011). Interação com usuários em APO de pátios escolares: Métodos, instrumentos e aplicação. Paper presented at the XL Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Society, Rio de Janeiro, RJ.
Morgan, D. L. (1997). The focus group guidebook (Vol. 1). New York: Sage.
Mueller, C. M. (2007). Espaços de ensino-aprendizagem com qualidade ambiental: O processo metodológico para elaboração de um anteprojeto. Masters Dissertation, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP.
Nair, P., Fielding, R. & Lackney, J. A. (2009). The language of school design: Design Patterns for 21st Century Schools. Washington, DC: Designshare, National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
Ornstein, S. W., & Moreira, N. S. (2008). Evaluating school facilities in Brazil. PEB Exchange, 6, 1-7.
Peña, W. M., & Parshall, S. A. (2012). Problem seeking: An architectural programming primer. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Perkins, B. L., & Bordwell, R. (2010). Building type basics for elementary and secondary schools. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Preiser, W. F. E. (1985). Programming the built environment. New York: Routledge.
Sanoff, H. (1979). Design games. Los Altos: William Kaufmann.
Sanoff, H. (2001). School building assessment methods. Washignton, DF: National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Educational Resources Information Center.
Sanoff, H. (2011). Participatory/collaborative design process. In S. Mallory-Hill, W. F. E. Preiser, & Watson (Eds.), Enhancing building performance (pp. 48-59). Chichester: Blackwell.
Studer, R. G., & Stea, D. (1966). Architectural programming, environmental design, and human behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 22(4), 127-136.
Tanner, C. K. (2000). The influence of school architecture on academic achievement. Journal of Educational Administration, 38(4), 309-330.
Taylor, A. P., & Enggass, K. (2009). Linking architecture and education sustainable design for learning environments. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Trist, E. L. (1959). Exploration in group relations. Leicester: Leicester University Press.
Tufte, E. R. (1990). Envisioning information. Birmingham: Graphics.
Uduku, O. (2015). Designing schools for quality: An international, case study-based review. International Journal of Educational Development, 44, 56-64.
Uglione, P., & Azevedo, G. A. (2017). La escuela necesita conversar con la ciudad. Desidades: Revista Eletrônica de Divulgação Científica da Infância e Juventude, 5(15), 34-45.
Upitis, R. (2010). Raising a school: Foundations for School Architecture. Yarker: Wintergreen Studios Press.
Walden, R. (Ed.). (2015). Schools for the future: Design Proposals from Architectural Psychology. Basel: Springer.
Weinschenk, S. (2011). 100 things every designer needs to know about people. Berkeley: Pearson Education.
Williams, J. J., Hong, S. M., Mumovic, D., Taylor, I. (2015). Using a unified school database to understand the effect of new school buildings on school performance in England. Intelligent Buildings International, 7(2-3), 83-100.
Wölfel, C., & Merritt, T. (2013, September). Method card design dimensions: A survey of card-based design tools. Paper presented at the XIV IFIP Conference on Human-ComputerInteraction, Cape Town.
Woolner, P. (2009, September). Building Schools for the Future through a participatory design process: Exploring the issues and investigating ways forward. Paper presented at The British Education Association Conference, Manchester.
Woolner, P. (2014). School design together. London: Routledge.
Submitted to evaluation on October 14, 2017; revised on February 20, 2018, accepted for publication on March 07, 2018.
Copyright (c) 2019 Pro-Posições
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
A Proposições utiliza a licença do Creative Commons (CC), preservando assim, a integridade dos artigos em ambiente de acesso aberto.