O raciocínio geológico: a geologia como uma ciência interpretativa e histórica

  • Robert Frodeman Universidade do Colorado
Palavras-chave: Geologia. Filosofia da ciência. Raciocínio geológico. Ciência histórica. Ciência interpretativa.


O padrão pelo qual se avalia o processo de raciocínio da geologia entende que lhe falta uma metodologia própria e distintiva. Pelo contrário, a geologia é descrita como ciência derivada, baseada em técnicas lógicas, tal como exemplificado pela física. Defendo que esta avaliação é insuficiente e distorce nossa compreensão tanto da geologia como do processo científico em geral. Longe de simplesmente assumir e aplicar as técnicas lógicas da física, o raciocínio geológico desenvolveu seu próprio conjunto distinto de procedimentos lógicos. Eu começo com uma revisão da filosofia da ciência contemporânea no que se refere à geologia. Passo, então, a discutir as duas características distintivas do raciocínio geológico, que são sua natureza: (1) de ciência interpretativa e (2) de ciência histórica. Concluo que o raciocínio geológico nos oferece o melhor modelo do tipo de raciocínio necessário para enfrentar os tipos de problemas que deverão emergir no século 21


Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Robert Frodeman, Universidade do Colorado
Departamento de Ciências Geológicas e Departamento de Filosofia — Universidade do Colorado, Boulder, Colorado


Ager D.V. 1993. The nature of the stratigraphical record. New York, Wiley and Sons, 151p.

Albritton C.C. editor. 1963. The fabric of geology. Reading, Massachusetts, Addison-Wesley, 372p.

Anderton R. 1985. Clastic facies models and facies analysis. In: Brenchley P.J. and Williams B.J.P. eds. 1985. Sedimentology : recent developments and applied aspects. Oxford, United Kingdom, Blackwell Scientific Publications. p. 31-47.

Berggren W.A. & Van Couvering J.A. eds. 1984. Catastrophes and Earth history. Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton Univ. Press. 464p.

Bleicher J. 1980. Contemporary hermeneutics. Massachusetts, Poutledge and Kegan Paul. 288p.

Bucher W. H. 1941. The nature of geological inquiry and the training required for it. New York, A.I.M.E. Technical Publication 1377, 6p.

Carnap R. 1937. The logical syntax of language. London, United Kingdom. Routledge and Kegan Paul. 252p.

Carr D. 1986. Time, narrative and history. Bloomington, Indiana University Press. 189p.

Chamberlin T.C. 1890. The method of multiple working hypotheses. Science, 15:92-96.

Churchland P.S. 1986. Neurophilosophy. Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press. 546p.

Collins H. & Pinch T. 1993. The golem: What everyone should know about science. Cambridge,

Massachusetts, Harvard University Press. 163p.

Degens E.T. & Stoffers P. 1976. Stratified waters as a key to the past. Nature, 263:22-26.

Descartes R. 1964. Philosophical essays. Lafleur, L.J. trans. New York, Macmillan. 236p.

Feyerabend P. 1965. Problems of empiricism. In: Colodny R. ed. 1965. Beyond the edge of certainty. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hall. 287p.

Feyerabend P. 1977. Against method : Outline of an anarchistic theory of knowledge. London, United Kingdom, New Left Books. 279p.

Gadamer H.-G. 1975. Truth and method. New York, Continuum. 551p.

Giere, R.N. 1988. Explaining science: A cognitive approach. Chicago, Illinois, Univ. Of Chicago

Press. 321p.

Gilbert G.K. 1886. The inculcation of scientific method by example. American Journal of Science, 3rd ser., 31:284-299.

Gillispie C.C. 1959. Genesis and geology. New York, Harper. 306p.

Goldman S.L. 1982. Modern science and western culture: The issue of time. History of European Ideas, 3(4):371-401.

Goodman N. 1951. The structure of appearence. Indianapolis, Indiana, Bobbs-Merrill. 315p.

Goodman N. 1967. Uniformity and simplicity. In: Albritton C.C.Jr., Hubbert M.K., Wilson L.G.,

Newell N.D., Goodman N. eds. 1967. Uniformity and simplicity : A symposium on the principle of the uniformity of nature. New York, Geological Society of America Special Paper 89, p. 93-99.

Gould S.J. 1987. Time’s arrow, time’s cycle : Myth and metaphor in the discovery of geologic time. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard Univ. Press. 222p.

Gould S.J. 1989. Wonderful life : The Burgess Shale and the nature of history. New York, Norton. 347p.

Habermas, J. 1971. Knowledge and human interests. Boston, Beacon Press. 356p.

Hacking I. 1983. Representing and intervening. Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge Univ. Press. 287p.

Heelan P. 1983. Natural science as a hermeneutic of instrumentation. Philosophy of Science, 50:181-204.

Heidegger M. 1927. Sein und zeit. Tübingen, Germany, Neomarius Verlag. 488p.

Heidegger M. 1962. Being and time. Macquarrie L., & Robinson E., trans. New York, Harper and Row. 589p.

Herrick C. & Jamieson D. The social construction of acid rain: Some implications for science/policy assessment. Global Environmental Change, 5:101-112.

Hull D.L. 1976. Central subjects and historical narratives. History and Theory, 14:253-74.

Hull D.L. 1981. Historical narratives and integrating explanations. In: L.Wayne Summer, John G. Slater, Fred Wilson. eds. 1981. Pragmatism and purpose. Toronto, Ontario, University of Toronto Press. 352p.

Johnson G.A. ed. 1993. The Merleau-Ponty aesthetics resder. Chicago, Northwestern Univ. Press. 421p.

Kitcher P. 1993. The advancement of science. New York, Oxford Univ. Press. 421p.

Kitts D.B. 1977. The structure of geology. Dallas, Texas, SMU Press. 180p.

Knorr Cetina K. 1981. The manufacture of knowledge. Oxford, United Kingdom, and New York, Pergamon. 189p.

Kocklemans J. & Kisiel T. 1970. Phenomenology and the natural sciences. Evanston, Illinois, Northwestern Univ. Press. 520p.

Kornblith H. ed. 1985. Naturalizing epistemology. Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press. 478p.

Koyre A. 1957. From the closed world to the infinite universe. Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press. 313p.

Kuhn T.S. 1957. The copernican revolution : Planetary astronomy in the development of western thought. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard Univ. Press. 297p.

Kuhn T.S. 1970. The structure of scientific revolutions. Cambridge, Massachuetts, Harvard Univ. Press. 210p.

Kuhn T.S. 1977. The essential tension : Selected studies in scientific thought and change. Chicago, Illinois, Univ. of Chicago Press. 366p.

Latour B. &Woolgar, S. 1979. Laboratory life. Beverly Hills, California, Sage Publ. 272p.

Laudan R. 1987. From mineralogy to geology. Chicago, Illinois, Univ. of Chicago Press. 278p.

Levi-Strauss C. 1966. The savage mind. Chicago, Illinois, Univ. of Chicago Press. 290p.

Marcuse H. 1964. One-dimensional man. Boston, Massachusetts, Free Press. 260p.

McPhee J. 1981. Basin and range. New York, Farrar, Straus, Giroux. 215p.

Pickering A. ed. 1992. Science as practice and culture. Chicago, Illinois, Univ. of Chicago Press. 474p.

Popper K. 1953. The logic of scientific discovery. New York, Harper and Row. 474p.

Quine W.V.O. 1953. From a logical point of view. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard Univ. Press. 184p.

Rajchman J. & West C. 1985. Post-analytic philosophy. New York, Columbia Univ. Press. 275p.

Reichenbach H. 1928. Philosopie der Raum-Seit-Lehre. Berlim, Viehweg. Reichenbach H. 1958. The philosophy of space and time. Reichenbach, M. & Freund, trans. New York, Dover. 295p.

Ricoeur P. 1985. Time and narrative, McLaughlin, K., and Pellauer, D., trans. Chicago, Illinois, Univ. of Chicago Press. 207p.

Ricoeur P. 1987. On interpretation. In: Baynes K., Bohman J., McCarthy T. eds. 1987. After philosophy : End or transformation? Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press. p. 357-380.

Rorty R. 1979. Philosophy and the mirror of nature. Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton Univ. Press. 401p.

Rouse J. 1987. Knowledge and power: Toward a political philosophy of science. Ithaca, New York, Cornell Univ. Press. 283p.

Rudwick M.J.S. 1976a. The meaning of fossils. New York, American Elsevier. 287p.

Rudwick M.J.S. 1976b. The emergence of a visual language for geological science. 1760-1840. History of Science, 14:149-195.

Russell B. 1929. Our knowledge of the external world. London, United Kingdom, Allen and Unwin. 268p.

Sallis J. 1994. Stone. Bloomington, Indiana Univ. Press. 147p.

Schumm S. 1991. To interpret the Earth: Ten ways to be wrong. Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge Univ. Press. 133p.

Strahler A.N. 1992. Understanding science:An introduction to concepts and issues. Buffalo, New York, Prometheus Books. 409p.

Thagard P. 1992. Conceptual revolutions. Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton Univ. Press. 285p.

Toulmin S. & Goodfield J. 1965. The discovery of time. New York, Harper and Row. 280p.

Traweek S. 1988. Beamtimes and lifetimes. Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge Univ. Press. 187p.

Turner C. & Frodeman R. 1995. Geology includes Philosophy, Politics. Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol., AAPG Explorer, August, 1995.

Turner C. & Frodeman R. 1995. Geology includes Philosophy, Politics. Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol., AAPG Explorer, August, 1995.

Von Engelhardt W. & Zimmerman J. 1988. Theory of Earth Science. Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge Univ. Press. 381p.

Watson R.A. 1969. Explanation and prediction in geology. J. Geol., 77:488-494.

White M. 1963. The logic of historical narration. Philosophy and History, 3:4-14.

Como Citar
Frodeman, R. (2015). O raciocínio geológico: a geologia como uma ciência interpretativa e histórica. Terrae Didatica, 6(2), 85-99. https://doi.org/10.20396/td.v6i2.8637460