Ciclos climáticos e causas naturais das mudanças do clima

  • Marcos José de Oliveira Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente
  • Celso Dal Ré Carneiro Universidade Estadual de Campinas
  • Francisco Arthur da Silva Vecchia Universidade de São Paulo
  • Gustavo Macedo de Mello Baptista Universidade de Brasília
Palavras-chave: Mudança climática. Clima. Climatologia. Geologia. Processos naturais, dióxido de carbono. Aquecimento global antropogênico.

Resumo

A periódica mudança climática na Terra pode ser explicada por um número reduzido de fatores terrestres e astronômicos. Nas escalas anual/diária, o clima obedece aos movimentos de translação e de rotação. Ciclos climáticos de períodos médios (décadas/séculos/milênios) relacionam-se a mudanças na radiação solar, provocadas pela influência de grandes planetas do Sistema Solar. As oscilações oceânicas (ordem decadal) são possivelmente causadas por influências planetárias e lunares. Ciclos climáticos longos (dezenas a centenas de milhares de anos) são causados por variações nos parâmetros da órbita da Terra (excentricidade, obliquidade e precessão). Eventos de impacto de grandes corpos no planeta e extinções em massa de espécies advêm de superciclos (dezenas de milhões de anos) provocados pela oscilação vertical do Sistema Solar em relação ao plano galáctico. Tectonismo, vulcanismo e a evolução de supercontinentes exibem superciclos (centenas de milhões de anos) induzidos pelo deslocamento do Sistema Solar ao redor do centro da Via Láctea e pela variação de raios cósmicos. Fatores astronômicos permeiam praticamente todas as ordens dos ciclos climáticos e atuam direta ou indiretamente nos processos bio-geo-oceânico-atmosféricos. Conclui-se que o clima na Terra é caracterizado por ciclos controlados astronomicamente pela Lua, o Sol, os planetas, o Sistema Solar e, até mesmo, a Galáxia. 

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Biografia do Autor

Marcos José de Oliveira, Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente
Possui graduação em Engenharia Ambiental pela Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo; mestrado em Ciências da Engenharia Ambiental pela Universidade de São Paulo; e cursa doutorado no mesmo programa: PPG-SEA - EESC/USP (início: 2015). Desde 2010, é Analista Ambiental do Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis - IBAMA. Atualmente lotado na Unidade Avançada do IBAMA no Aeroporto Internacional de Viracopos - Campinas/SP, trabalha com Fiscalização Ambiental de Comércio Exterior. 
Celso Dal Ré Carneiro, Universidade Estadual de Campinas
Geólogo, mestre e doutor pelo Instituto de Geociências USP e Livre Docente nas áreas de Ciências da Terra e Comunicação em Geociências pelo Instituto de Geociências da Unicamp. É Membro Associado da Academia Brasileira de Ciências; recebeu os prêmios Martelo de Prata e Medalha de Ouro Henry Gorceix da Sociedade Brasileira de Geologia. Foi professor do Instituto de Geociências USP e pesquisador do Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas (IPT), tendo sido Coordenador da Divisão de Geologia e Recursos Minerais do IPT.  Aposentou-se em abril de 2017; continua a atuar como professor colaborador do IG-Unicamp. Orienta doutorandos e mestrandos e ministra disciplinas de pós-graduação nas áreas de Geologia, Metodologia de Ensino e Comunicação em Geociências.
Francisco Arthur da Silva Vecchia, Universidade de São Paulo
Graduação em Engenharia de Produção, Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos (1981), Especialização em Arquitetura Bioambiental, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (1986), Mestrado em Arquitetura: Tecnologia do Ambiente Construído, também, pela Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos - EESC USP (1990) e doutorado em Ciências, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas (1997). Atualmente é Professor Associado A3 (Livre Docente) da Universidade de São Paulo, EESC USP, assessor internacional da Universidade de Chiapas, México; foi representante brasileiro no Programa Iberoamericano de Ciencia y Tecnologia para el Desarrollo (CYTED). 
Gustavo Macedo de Mello Baptista, Universidade de Brasília
Professor Adjunto IV do Instituto de Geociências da Universidade de Brasília. Coordenador do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geociências Aplicadas e ex-Diretor do Centro de Estudos Avançados Multidisciplinares CEAM/UnB (2014-2016). Possui graduação em Bacharelado em Geografia pela Universidade de Brasília (1994), graduação em Licenciatura em Estudos Sociais - Habilitação Geografia pela União Pioneira de Integração Social Faculdades Integradas (2009), especialização em Inteligência de Futuro: Prospectiva, Estratégia e Políticas Públicas pela Universidade de Brasília (2015), mestrado em Tecnologia Ambiental e Recursos Hídricos pela Universidade de Brasília (1997) e doutorado em Geologia pela Universidade de Brasília (2001).

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Publicado
2018-01-22
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Oliveira, M. J. de, Carneiro, C. D. R., Vecchia, F. A. da S., & Baptista, G. M. de M. (2018). Ciclos climáticos e causas naturais das mudanças do clima. Terrae Didatica, 13(3), 149-184. https://doi.org/10.20396/td.v13i3.8650958
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