Quando a obrigação de ser neutro se transforma no direito de discriminar

embates discursivos sobre os direitps LGBT+ em universidades polonesas

Autores

Palavras-chave:

Universidades polonesas, Comunidade LGBT , Estratégias de resistência, Análise Crítica do Discurso, Investigação narrativa, Heteronormatividade

Resumo

Neste artigo, discutimos as narrativas de embates, resistência e contra-resistência sobre os direitos da comunidade LGBT+ em várias universidades polonesas, cujos nomes não são fornecidos  a fim de proteger os nossos informantes. Em particular, analisamos os discursos de grupos LGBT+ que lutam para estabelecer ou manter organizações de várias formas (desde círculos de estudo de estudantes a instituições do tipo sindical) no contexto da estrutura interna das universidades, da cultura acadêmica polonesa e dos atuais desenvolvimentos políticos no país. Esta investigação baseia-se em entrevistas em profundidade semi-estruturadas que realizamos na primavera e no verão de 2020. Nas nossas análises do material da entrevista, aplicamos um quadro metodológico multidisciplinar que combina ACD e investigação narrativa, a fim de examinar fenômenos linguísticos que participam na construção de uma versão específica da realidade por meio de texto  em conversa. Tal concepção de investigação permite-nos oferecer um estudo de caso das dificuldades e obstáculos enfrentados pelos ativistas LGBT+ na academia polonesa, da forma como os entendem, e pelas estratégias de resistência que empregam neste contexto particular. A nossa investigação mostra uma vasta gama de estratégias de resistência empregadas pelos membros da comunidade LGBT+ que podem ser classificadas de acordo com a escala de práticas discriminatórias a que respondem (discriminação sistêmica/individual) e com o tipo de resposta em si (resposta de grupo/individual). Com base nos exemplos discutidos, o  artigo oferece uma matriz interagentiva de estratégias de abordagem de questões LGBT+ emergentes no contexto acadêmico polonês.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Referências

Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism. Verso.

Bartlett, T. (2012). Hybrid voices and collaborative change: Conceptualizing positive discourse analysis. London: Routledge.

Bartlett, T. (2010). Towards intervention in Positive Discourse Analysis. In C. Coffin, O’Halloran, K., & Illis, T. (Eds.), Applied Linguistics Methods: A Reader (pp. 133–147). Abingdon: Routledge, The Open University.

Burns, A. (2019). Action Research in English Language Teaching: Contributions and Recent Developments. In J. Voogt, G. Knezek, R. Christensen, & K.-W. Lai (Eds.), Second Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education (pp. 1–15). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58542-0_52-1.

Canakis, C., & Kersten-Pejanić, R. (2016). Spray-Canned Discourses Reimagining Gender, Sexuality, and Citizenship Trough Linguistic Landscapes in the Balkans. In S. Goll, M. Mlinarić, & J. Gold (Eds.), Minorities Under Attack: Othering and Right-wing Extremism in Southeast European Societies (pp. 129–160). Harrassowitz Verlag.

CBOS 2019. Stosunek Polaków do związków homoseksualnych. Komunikat z badań nr 90/2019. Warszawa: Fundacja Centrum Badania Opinii Publicznej.

Chojnicka, J., & Pakuła, Ł. (2021). Polish LGBT teachers talking sexuality: Glocalised discourses. In Ł. Pakuła (Ed.), Linguistic perspectives on sexuality in education: Representations, constructions, and negotiations. (pp. 0–0). Palgrave Macmillan.

Chojnicka, Joanna. 2020. Transition Narratives on Polish Trans Blogs: A Discursive Colonization Approach. In: Godovannaya, M., M. Neufeld, S. Shoshanova, K. Wiedlack (eds.) Solidarity, Place and Power: queer-feminist Struggles and the East/West Divide. Bern: Peter Lang, 201-227.

Chojnicka, Joanna 2019. Homosexuality in Latvian and Polish parliamentary debates 1994-2013: A historical approach to conflict in political discourse. In: Jeffries, L., J. O’Driscoll (eds.) The Handbook of Language in Conflict. London: Routledge, 103-127.

Connelly, F. M., & Clandinin, D. J. (2006). Narrative inquiry. In J. L. Green, G. Camilli, & P. Elmore (Eds.), Handbook of complementary methods in education research (pp. 477–487). Lawrence Erlbaum.

Eckert, P., & McConnell-Ginet, S. (1992). Think practically and look locally: Language and gender as community-based practice. Annual Review of Anthropology, 21, 461–490.

Fairclough, Norman & Ruth Wodak 1997. Critical discourse analysis. In T.A. Van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse Studies. A multidisciplinary introduction, vol. 2. Discourse as social interaction (pp. 258-284). London: Sage Publications.

Graff, Agnieszka 2006. We are (not all) homophobes – a report from Poland. Feminist Studies 32 (2): 434-49.

Grundy, P. (1995). Doing Pragmatics. Edward Arnold.

Jej Perfekcyjność 2016. Wyobcowane, wyobcowani. Raport z badań nad sytuacją osób LGBTQ studiujących na Uniwersytecie Warszawskim edycja 2016. Warszawa: Queer UW.

Karioris, F. G., Haywood, C., & Allan, J. A. (2018). An Education in Sexuality and Sociality: Heteronormativity on Campus. Lexington Books.

Khiabany, G., & Williamson, M. (2015). Free speech and the market state: Race, media and democracy in new liberal times. European Journal of Communication. https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323115597855.

Lyons, N., & LaBoskey, V. K. (Eds.). (2002). Narrative Inquiry in Practice: Advancing the Knowledge of Teaching. Teachers College Press.

Kłonkowska, Anna. 2017. Płeć: dana czy zadana? Strategie negocjacji (nie)tożsamości płciowej w Polsce. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego.

Kochanowski, Jacek. 2004. Fantazmat ZróżNICowany. socjologiczne studium przemian tożsamości gejów. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Universitas.

Kochanowski, Jacek. 2013. Socjologia seksualności: marginesy. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Kulpa, Robert, and Joanna Mizielińska, eds. 2011. De-centring western sexualities: Central and Eastern European perspectives. Farnham: Ashgate.

Majka-Rostek, Dorota 2019. Medialne coming outy polskich artystów-strategie wizerunkowe. Culture Management/Zarządzanie w Kulturze 20 (2), 181-197.

Martin, James R. 2004. Positive discourse analysis: Solidarity and change. Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 49: 179-200.

Mazurczak, Anna, Marcin Mrowicki & Milena Adamczewska-Stachura 2019. Sytuacja prawna osób nieheteroseksualnych i transpłciowych w Polsce. Międzynarodowy standard ochrony praw człowieka osób LGBT i stan jego przestrzegania z perspektywy Rzecznika Praw Obywatelskich. Warszawa: Biuro Rzecznika Praw Obywatelskich.

Milani, T. M. (2013). Whither linguistic landscapes?: The sexed facets of ordinary signs. Tilburg Papers in Culture Studies. https://research.tilburguniversity.edu/en/publications/whither-linguistic-landscapes-the-sexed-facets-of-ordinary-signs

Morrish, L. (2002). The case of the indefinite pronoun: Discourse and the concealment of lesbian identity in class. In L. Litosseliti & J. Sunderland (Eds.), Gender identity and Discourse analysis (pp. 177–192). John Benjamins.

Morrish, L., & Sauntson, H. (2007). New perspectives on language and sexual identity. Palgrave Macmillan.

Motschenbacher, H. (2020). Walking on Wilton Drive: A linguistic landscape analysis of a homonormative space. Language & Communication, 72, 25–43.

Nowak, Samuel. 2013. Seksualny kapitał. wyobrażone wspólnoty smaku i medialne tożsamości polskich gejów. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Universitas.

Pakuła, Ł. (2019). Befriending the risk(s) in language, sexuality, and education research: Blueprinting for a taxonomy of risks. In C. Danjo, I. Meddegama, D. O’Brien, J. Prudhoe, L. Walz, & R. Wickasono (Eds.), Online Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the British Association for Applied Linguistics: Taking Risks in Applied Linguistics (pp. 86–90). York St John University.

Pakuła, Łukasz (ed.). (2021). Linguistic perspectives on sexuality in education: representations, constructions, and negotiations. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Pakuła, Ł., J. Pawelczyk, & J. Sunderland. (2015). Gender and sexuality in English language education: Focus on Poland. London: British Council.

Ripley, M., Anderson, E., McCormack, M., & Rockett, B. (2012). Heteronormativity in the University Classroom Novelty Attachment and Content Substitution among Gay-friendly Students. Sociology of Education, 85(2), 121–130.

Świder, Magdalena & Mikołaj Winiewski 2017. Situation of LGBTA Persons in Poland. 2015-2016 Report. Warsaw: Campaign Against Homophobia.

Van Dijk, Teun A. 1997. What is political discourse analysis? In J. Blommaert, & C. Bulcaen (Eds.), Political Linguistics (pp. 159-177). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Wodak, R., & Meyer, M. (Eds.). (2015). Methods of Critical Discourse Studies (Third edition). London: SAGE.

Wareing, Shân 2004. What is language and what does it do? In L. Thomas, S. Wareing, I. Singh, & J. Stilwell Peccei (Eds.), Language, society and power: An introduction (pp. 1-16). London: Routledge.

Downloads

Publicado

2021-03-09

Como Citar

PAKUŁA, Łukasz; CHOJNICKA, J. Quando a obrigação de ser neutro se transforma no direito de discriminar: embates discursivos sobre os direitps LGBT+ em universidades polonesas . Trabalhos em Linguística Aplicada, Campinas, SP, v. 59, n. 3, p. 1758–1783, 2021. Disponível em: https://periodicos.sbu.unicamp.br/ojs/index.php/tla/article/view/8661665. Acesso em: 20 jun. 2021.

Edição

Seção

Dossiê